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Kato T.A.,Kyushu University | Hashimoto R.,Osaka University | Hayakawa K.,Kyushu University | Kubo H.,Kyushu University | And 4 more authors.
Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences | Year: 2016

Japan's prototype of depression was traditionally a melancholic depression based on the premorbid personality known as shu¯chaku-kishitsu proposed by Mitsuzo Shimoda in the 1930s. However, since around 2000, a novel form of depression has emerged among Japanese youth. Called 'modern type depression (MTD)' by the mass media, the term has quickly gained popularity among the general public, though it has not been regarded as an official medical term. Likewise, lack of consensus guidelines for its diagnosis and treatment, and a dearth of scientific literature on MTD has led to confusion when dealing with it in clinical practice in Japan. In this review article, we summarize and discuss the present situation and issues regarding MTD by focusing on historical, diagnostic, psychosocial, and cultural perspectives. We also draw on international perspectives that begin to suggest that MTD is a phenomenon that may exist not only in Japan but also in many other countries with different sociocultural and historical backgrounds. It is therefore of interest to establish whether MTD is a culture-specific phenomenon in Japan or a syndrome that can be classified using international diagnostic criteria as contained in the ICD or the DSM. We propose a novel diagnostic approach for depression that addresses MTD in order to combat the current confusion about depression under the present diagnostic systems. © 2015 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences.


Smith K.A.,Reed College | Harvath T.A.,University of California at Davis | Goy E.R.,Mental Health and Neurosciences Division | Goy E.R.,Oregon Health And Science University | Ganzini L.,Oregon Health And Science University
Journal of Pain and Symptom Management | Year: 2015

Context Physician-assisted death (PAD) was legalized in 1997 by Oregon's Death with Dignity Act. The States of Washington, Montana, Vermont, and New Mexico have since provided legal sanction for PAD. Through 2013, 1173 Oregonians have received a prescription under the Death with Dignity Act and 752 have died after taking the prescribed medication in Oregon. Objectives To determine the predictive value of personal and interpersonal variables in the pursuit of PAD. Methods Fifty-five Oregonians who either requested PAD or contacted a PAD advocacy organization were compared with 39 individuals with advanced disease who did not pursue PAD. We compared the two groups on responses to standardized measures of depression, hopelessness, spirituality, social support, and pain. We also compared the two groups on style of attachment to intimate others and caregivers as understood through attachment theory. Results We found that PAD requesters had higher levels of depression, hopelessness, and dismissive attachment (attachment to others characterized by independence and self-reliance), and lower levels of spirituality. There were moderate correlations among the variables of spirituality, hopelessness, depression, social support, and dismissive attachment. There was a strong correlation between depression and hopelessness. Low spirituality emerged as the strongest predictor of pursuit of PAD in the regression analysis. Conclusion Although some factors motivating pursuit of PAD, such as depression, may be ameliorated by medical interventions, other factors, such as style of attachment and sense of spirituality, are long-standing aspects of the individual that should be supported at the end of life. Practitioners must develop respectful awareness and understanding of the interpersonal and spiritual perspectives of their patients to provide such support.


PubMed | Osaka University, Sunway Business, Mental Health and Neurosciences Division and Kyushu University
Type: Case Reports | Journal: Psychiatry and clinical neurosciences | Year: 2016

Japans prototype of depression was traditionally a melancholic depression based on the premorbid personality known as shchaku-kishitsu proposed by Mitsuzo Shimoda in the 1930s. However, since around 2000, a novel form of depression has emerged among Japanese youth. Called modern type depression (MTD) by the mass media, the term has quickly gained popularity among the general public, though it has not been regarded as an official medical term. Likewise, lack of consensus guidelines for its diagnosis and treatment, and a dearth of scientific literature on MTD has led to confusion when dealing with it in clinical practice in Japan. In this review article, we summarize and discuss the present situation and issues regarding MTD by focusing on historical, diagnostic, psychosocial, and cultural perspectives. We also draw on international perspectives that begin to suggest that MTD is a phenomenon that may exist not only in Japan but also in many other countries with different sociocultural and historical backgrounds. It is therefore of interest to establish whether MTD is a culture-specific phenomenon in Japan or a syndrome that can be classified using international diagnostic criteria as contained in the ICD or the DSM. We propose a novel diagnostic approach for depression that addresses MTD in order to combat the current confusion about depression under the present diagnostic systems.


Lu M.W.,Mental Health and Neurosciences Division | Duckart J.P.,3710 Sw Us Veterans Hospital Rd | O'Malley J.P.,Oregon Health And Science University | Dobscha S.K.,3710 Sw Us Veterans Hospital Rd
Psychiatric Services | Year: 2011

Objectives: This study described utilization of specialty treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) facilities among veterans of Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), in Afghanistan, or of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), in Iraq, and non-OEF-OIF veterans recently diagnosed as having PTSD. It also identified predictors of receiving minimally adequate specialty treatment, defined as attending at least nine clinic visits within 365 days of screening positive for PTSD. Methods: VA administrative data were obtained for 869 veterans who screened positive for PTSD between November 7, 2006, and September 30, 2008, received a diagnosis of PTSD, and visited a PTSD specialty clinic operated by the VA in the Pacific Northwest at least once within a year of screening positive. Results: A total of 286 (33%) of the 852 veterans for whom complete data were available received minimally adequate specialty treatment; OEF-OIF veterans were less likely than non-OEF-OIF veterans to receive minimally adequate specialty treatment (29% versus 36%, p=.021) and attended fewer mean±SD visits to a PTSD clinic (8.2±11.4 versus 9.9±13.5, p=.045). Predictors of receiving minimally adequate specialty treatment included attending a PTSD clinic visit within 30 days of a positive screen, living in an urban location, and having psychiatric comorbidities. Conclusions: Most veterans with new PTSD diagnoses who initiated VA PTSD specialty care did not receive minimally adequate specialty treatment. Future studies should examine factors that lead to premature discontinuation of PTSD treatment and to what extent specialty treatment for PTSD is necessary.

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