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Schnell B.,Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology | Schnell B.,University of Washington | Raghu S.V.,Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology | Raghu S.V.,Neuroscience Research Partnership | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Comparative Physiology A: Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology | Year: 2012

Wide-field motion-sensitive neurons in the lobula plate (lobula plate tangential cells, LPTCs) of the fly have been studied for decades. However, it has never been conclusively shown which cells constitute their major presynaptic elements. LPTCs are supposed to be rendered directionally selective by integrating excitatory as well as inhibitory input from many local motion detectors. Based on their stratification in the different layers of the lobula plate, the columnar cells T4 and T5 are likely candidates to provide some of this input. To study their role in motion detection, we performed whole-cell recordings from LPTCs in Drosophila with T4 and T5 cells blocked using two different genetically encoded tools. In these flies, motion responses were abolished, while flicker responses largely remained. We thus demonstrate that T4 and T5 cells indeed represent those columnar cells that provide directionally selective motion information to LPTCs. Contrary to previous assumptions, flicker responses seem to be largely mediated by a third, independent pathway. This work thus represents a further step towards elucidating the complete motion detection circuitry of the fly. © 2012 The Author(s). Source


Tan I.,Neuroscience Research Partnership | Lai J.,Neuroscience Research Partnership | Lai J.,National University of Singapore | Yong J.,Neuroscience Research Partnership | And 4 more authors.
FEBS Letters | Year: 2011

Cell movement requires forces generated by non-muscle myosin II (NM II) for coordinated protrusion and retraction. The Cdc42/Rac effector MRCK regulates a specific actomyosin network in the lamella essential for cell protrusion and migration. Together with the Rho effector ROK required for cell rear retraction, they cooperatively regulate cell motility and tumour cell invasion. Despite the increasing importance of ROK inhibitors for both experimental and clinical purposes, there is a lack of specific inhibitors for other related kinases such as MRCK. Here, we report the identification of chelerythrine chloride as a specific MRCK inhibitor. Its ability to block cellular activity of MRCK resulted in the specific loss of NM II-associated MLC phosphorylation in the lamella, and the consequential suppression of cell migration. Structured summary of protein interactions: DMPK phosphorylates MYPT by protein kinase assay (View interaction) PAK alpha phosphorylates MLC by protein kinase assay (View interaction) MRCK alpha phosphorylates MLC by protein kinase assay (View interaction) CRIK phosphorylates MLC by protein kinase assay (View interaction) MRCK beta phosphorylates MLC by protein kinase assay (View interaction) ROK alpha phosphorylates MLC by protein kinase assay (View Interaction 1, 2) MRCK beta phosphorylates MYPT by protein kinase assay (View interaction) MRCK alpha phosphorylates MYPT by protein kinase assay (View interaction) ROK alpha phosphorylates MYPT by protein kinase assay (View interaction) MLCK phosphorylates MLC by protein kinase assay (View interaction). © 2011 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

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