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Seifert H.A.,University of South Florida | Collier L.A.,University of South Florida | Chapman C.B.,University of South Florida | Benkovic S.A.,NeuroScience Associates | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology | Year: 2014

The delayed immune response to stroke is responsible for the increased neural injury that continues to occur after the initial ischemic event. This delayed immune response has been linked to the spleen, as splenectomy prior to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) is neuroprotective. Interferon gamma (IFNγ) is linked to the splenic response, which enhances neural injury following MCAO. IFNγ activates the expression of the inflammatory chemokine interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10). This study was designed to determine the role of IFNγ signaling in the inflammatory response following MCAO. Expression of IP-10 increased in the brain and the spleen following MCAO. Splenectomy inhibited the increase of IP-10 in the brain post-MCAO, while recombinant IFNγ administration to splenectomized rats returned IP-10 levels in the brain to levels found in rats after MCAO only. Systemic administration of an IFNγ neutralizing antibody to MCAO-treated rats reduced infarct volume and IP-10 levels in the brain. T cell infiltration was reduced in the MCAO-damaged brains of IFNγ antibody-treated animals relative to those that received isotype control antibodies. Additionally, inhibiting IFNγ signaling with splenectomy or an IFNγ neutralizing antibody blocked the induction of IP-10 expression and decreased neurodegeneration following MCAO. Targeting this pro-inflammatory pathway following stroke could be a promising stroke therapeutic. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

Ludvig N.,NYU Langone Medical Center | Switzer III R.C.,NeuroScience Associates | Tang H.M.,NYU Langone Medical Center | Kuzniecky R.I.,NYU Langone Medical Center
Brain Research | Year: 2012

Electrophysiological and behavioral studies have demonstrated that muscimol administered through the cranial meninges can prevent focal neocortical seizures. It was proposed that transmeningeal muscimol delivery can be used for the treatment of intractable focal neocortical epilepsy. However, it has not been proved that muscimol administered via the transmeningeal route can penetrate into the neocortex. The purpose of the present study was to solve this problem by using combined autoradiography-histology methods. Four rats were implanted with epidural cups over the parietal cortices. A 50 μL mixture of [3H] muscimol and unlabeled muscimol with a final concentration of 1.0 mM was delivered through each cup on the dura mater. After a 1-hour exposure, the muscimol solution was removed and replaced with formalin to trap the transmeningeally diffused molecules. Then the whole brain was fixed transcardially, sectioned, with the sections subjected to autoradiography and thionine counterstaining. Results showed that (1) [3H] muscimol diffused through the meninges into the cortical tissue underlying the epidural cup in all rats. (2) [3H] muscimol-related autoradiography grains were distributed in all six neocortical layers. (3) [3H] muscimol-related autoradiography grains were localized to the cortical area underneath the epidural delivery site and were absent in the cerebral cortical white matter and other brain structures. This study provided evidence that muscimol can be delivered via the transmeningeal route into the neocortical tissue in a spatially controlled manner. The finding further supports the rationale of using transmeningeal muscimol for the treatment of intractable focal neocortical epilepsy. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Seifert H.A.,University of South Florida | Leonardo C.C.,University of South Florida | Hall A.A.,University of South Florida | Rowe D.D.,University of South Florida | And 4 more authors.
Metabolic Brain Disease | Year: 2012

Delayed neuronal death associated with stroke has been increasingly linked to the immune response to the injury. Splenectomy prior to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) is neuroprotective and significantly reduces neuroinflammation. The present study investigated whether splenic signaling occurs through interferon gamma (IFNγ). IFNγ was elevated early in spleens but later in the brains of rats followingMCAO. Splenectomy decreased the amount of IFNγ in the infarct post-MCAO. Systemic administration of recombinant IFNγ abolished the protective effects of splenectomy with a concurrent increase in INFγ expression in the brain. These results suggest a role for spleen-derived IFNγ in stroke pathology. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012. Source

Skotak M.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | Wang F.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | Alai A.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | Holmberg A.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Neurotrauma | Year: 2013

We evaluated the acute (up to 24 h) pathophysiological response to primary blast using a rat model and helium driven shock tube. The shock tube generates animal loadings with controlled pure primary blast parameters over a wide range and field-relevant conditions. We studied the biomechanical loading with a set of pressure gauges mounted on the surface of the nose, in the cranial space, and in the thoracic cavity of cadaver rats. Anesthetized rats were exposed to a single blast at precisely controlled five peak overpressures over a wide range (130, 190, 230, 250, and 290 kPa). We observed 0% mortality rates in 130 and 230 kPa groups, and 30%, 24%, and 100% mortality rates in 190, 250, and 290 kPa groups, respectively. The body weight loss was statistically significant in 190 and 250 kPa groups 24 h after exposure. The data analysis showed the magnitude of peak-to-peak amplitude of intracranial pressure (ICP) fluctuations correlates well with mortality rates. The ICP oscillations recorded for 190, 250, and 290 kPa are characterized by higher frequency (10-20 kHz) than in other two groups (7-8 kHz). We noted acute bradycardia and lung hemorrhage in all groups of rats subjected to the blast. We established the onset of both corresponds to 110 kPa peak overpressure. The immunostaining against immunoglobulin G (IgG) of brain sections of rats sacrificed 24-h post-exposure indicated the diffuse blood-brain barrier breakdown in the brain parenchyma. At high blast intensities (peak overpressure of 190 kPa or more), the IgG uptake by neurons was evident, but there was no evidence of neurodegeneration after 24 h post-exposure, as indicated by cupric silver staining. We observed that the acute response as well as mortality is a non-linear function over the peak overpressure and impulse ranges explored in this work. © 2013 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source

Dave K.D.,The Michael J Fox Foundation For Parkinsons Research | De Silva S.,The Michael J Fox Foundation For Parkinsons Research | Sheth N.P.,The Michael J Fox Foundation For Parkinsons Research | Ramboz S.,Psychogenics, Inc. | And 18 more authors.
Neurobiology of Disease | Year: 2014

Recessively inherited loss-of-function mutations in the PTEN-induced putative kinase 1(Pink1), DJ-1 (Park7) and Parkin (Park2) genes are linked to familial cases of early-onset Parkinson's disease (PD). As part of its strategy to provide more tools for the research community, The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson's Research (MJFF) funded the generation of novel rat models with targeted disruption ofPink1, DJ-1 or Parkin genes and determined if the loss of these proteins would result in a progressive PD-like phenotype. Pathological, neurochemical and behavioral outcome measures were collected at 4, 6 and 8. months of age in homozygous KO rats and compared to wild-type (WT) rats. Both Pink1 and DJ-1 KO rats showed progressive nigral neurodegeneration with about 50% dopaminergic cell loss observed at 8 months of age. ThePink1 KO and DJ-1 KO rats also showed a two to three fold increase in striatal dopamine and serotonin content at 8 months of age. Both Pink1 KO and DJ-1 KO rats exhibited significant motor deficits starting at 4. months of age. However, Parkin KO rats displayed normal behaviors with no neurochemical or pathological changes. These results demonstrate that inactivation of the Pink1 or DJ-1 genes in the rat produces progressive neurodegeneration and early behavioral deficits, suggesting that these recessive genes may be essential for the survival of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN). These MJFF-generated novel rat models will assist the research community to elucidate the mechanisms by which these recessive genes produce PD pathology and potentially aid in therapeutic development. © 2014. Source

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