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Groningen, Netherlands

Brogan A.,Trinity College Dublin | Hevey D.,Trinity College Dublin | Pignatti R.,Neuropsychology Unit
Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society | Year: 2010

The pathological eating behaviors in Anorexia Nervosa (AN), Bulimia Nervosa (BN), and obesity are characterized by a preference for high immediate reward, despite higher future losses in terms of both physical and psychological outcomes. The present study compared the decision making profile of females with a diagnosis of AN (n = 22), BN (n = 17), obesity (n = 18), and a healthy weight comparison group (n = 20) using a standardized neuropsychological test, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). The three clinical groups (AN, BN, obesity) were significantly impaired on the IGT compared with the comparison group on both overall task performance and task learning; however, the three clinical groups were not significantly different from each other. Sixty-one percent to 77% of the clinical groups reached the threshold for impairment on the IGT, compared with 15% of the comparison group. The potential basis for this shared decision making profile is discussed. Copyright © The International Neuropsychological Society 2010. Source

Zeman A.Z.J.,University of Exeter | Beschin N.,Neuropsychology Unit | Dewar M.,University of Edinburgh | Della Sala S.,University of Edinburgh
Cortex | Year: 2013

Recent evidence suggests that in some patients with amnesia the capacity to imagine the future is impaired in parallel with the capacity to remember the past. This paper asks whether descriptions of the present may be similarly affected. We recruited 7 patients with amnesic syndromes of varying aetiologies who were matched for age, sex and education with 7 control participants. Patients showed no deficits on subjective measures of visual imagery. They were impaired by comparison with controls on measures of imagination and future thinking. However there was an even more marked impairment on tasks requiring them to give descriptions of their current experience. Potential explanations include effects of amnesia on narrative construction or on the texture of experience itself, and the confounding influence of cognitive impairments outside the memory domain. We conclude that tasks requiring descriptions of current experience provide a valuable control condition in studies examining the relationship between memory and imagination. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Ventre-Dominey J.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Bourret S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Mollion H.,Neuropsychology Unit | Broussolle E.,Neurology Unit | And 2 more authors.
Human Brain Mapping | Year: 2014

In this study, we investigated the neural substrates involved in visual working memory (WM) and the resulting effects of subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation in Parkinson's disease (PD). Cerebral activation revealed by positron emission tomography was compared among Parkinson patients with (PD-ON) or without (PD-OFF) STN stimulation, and a group of control subjects (CT) in two visual WM tasks with spatial (SP) and nonspatial (NSP) components. PD-OFF patients displayed significant reaction time (RT) deficits for both memory tasks. Although there were no significant differences in RT between patients with PD-ON and -OFF stimulation, patients with PD-ON stimulation performed comparably to controls. The memory tasks were executed with normal error rates in PD-ON and -OFF stimulation. In contrast to these behavioral results, whether the corresponding prefrontal activation was differentially affected by deep brain stimulation status in patients depended on whether the WM modality was SP versus NSP. Thus, SP WM was associated with (1) abnormal reduction in dorsolateral prefrontal activity in PD-OFF and -ON stimulation and (2) abnormal overactivation in parieto-temporal cortex in PD-OFF and in limbic circuits in PD-ON stimulation. In NSP WM, normal activation of the ventral prefrontal cortex was restored in PD-ON stimulation. In both visual modalities the posterior cerebral regions including fusiform cortex and cerebellum, displayed abnormally reduced activity in PD. These results indicate that PD induces a prefrontal hypoactivation that STN stimulation can partially restore in a modality selective manner by additional recruitment of limbic structures in SP WM or by recovery of the ventral prefrontal activation in NSP WM. Hum Brain Mapp 35:552-566, 2014. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Mollion H.,Neuropsychology Unit | Dominey P.F.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Broussolle E.,Neurology Unit | Ventre-Dominey J.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research
Movement Disorders | Year: 2011

Although the treatment of Parkinson's disease via subthalamic stimulation yields remarkable improvements in motor symptoms, its effects on memory function are less clear. In this context, we previously demonstrated dissociable effects of levodopa therapy on parkinsonian performance in spatial and nonspatial visual working memory. Here we used the same protocol with an additional, purely motor task to investigate visual memory and motor performance in 2 groups of patients with Parkinson's disease with or without subthalamic stimulation. In each stimulation condition, subjects performed a simple motor task and 3 successive cognitive tasks: 1 conditional color-response association task and 2 visual (spatial and nonspatial) working memory tasks. The Parkinson's groups were compared with a control group of age-matched healthy subjects. Our principal results demonstrated that (1) in the motor task, stimulated patients were significantly improved with respect to nonstimulated patients and did not differ significantly from healthy controls, and (2) in the cognitive tasks, stimulated patients were significantly improved with respect to nonstimulated patients, but both remained significantly impaired when compared with healthy controls. These results demonstrate selective effects of subthalamic stimulation on parkinsonian disorders of motor and visual memory functions, with clear motor improvement for stimulated patients and a partial improvement for their visual memory processing. © 2011 Movement Disorder Society. Source

De Luca M.,Neuropsychology Unit | Burani C.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Paizi D.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Paizi D.,University of Rome La Sapienza | And 4 more authors.
Cortex | Year: 2010

This study evaluated letter recognition processing in Italian developmental dyslexics and its potential contribution to word reading. Letter/bigram recognition (naming and matching) and reading of words and non-words were examined. A group of developmental dyslexics and a chronologically age-matched group of skilled readers were examined. Dyslexics were significantly slower than skilled readers in all tasks. The rate and amount model (RAM, Faust et al., 1999) was used to detect global and specific factors in the performance differences controlling for the presence of over-additivity effects. Two global factors emerged. One (" letter-string" factor) accounted for the performance in all (and only) word and non-word reading conditions, indicating a large impairment in dyslexics (more than 100% reaction time - RT increase as compared to skilled readers). All the letter/bigram tasks clustered on a separate factor (" letter" factor) indicating a mild impairment (ca. 20% RT increase as compared to skilled readers). After controlling for global factor influences by the use of the z-score transformation, specific effects were detected for the " letter-string" (but not the " letter" ) factor. Stimulus length exerted a specific effect on dyslexics' performance, with dyslexics being more affected by longer stimuli; furthermore, dyslexics showed a stronger impairment for reading words than non-words. Individual differences in the " letter" and " letter-string" factors were uncorrelated, pointing to the independence of the impairments. The putative mechanisms underlying the two global factors and their possible relationship to developmental dyslexia are discussed. © 2009 Elsevier Srl. Source

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