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Oslo, Norway

Wright D.J.,Manchester Metropolitan University | Holmes P.S.,Manchester Metropolitan University | Di Russo F.,Foro Italico University of Rome | Di Russo F.,Neuropsychology Center | And 2 more authors.
Human Movement Science | Year: 2012

The influence of motor skill learning on movement-related brain activity was investigated using electroencephalography. Previous research has indicated that experienced performers display movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs) of smaller amplitude and later onset compared to novices. Unfortunately, previous studies have lacked ecological validity with experimenters recording the MRCP prior to simple motor tasks and applying the results to more complex motor skills. This study replicated previous research using an ecologically valid motor skill; recording the MRCP from a group of experienced guitarists and a control group of non-musicians while they played a simple scale on the guitar. Results indicated no difference between groups in early motor planning. In contrast, the later, negative slope and motor potential components were of smaller amplitude and the negative slope began later in the experienced guitarists. The data may indicate that, for experienced guitarists, a reduced level of effort is required during the motor preparation phase of the task. These findings have implications for musical instrument learning as well as motor skill acquisition in general. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source


Wright D.J.,Manchester Metropolitan University | Holmes P.,Manchester Metropolitan University | Di Russo F.,Foro Italico University of Rome | Di Russo F.,Neuropsychology Center | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Experts in a skill produce movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs) of smaller amplitude and later onset than novices. This may indicate that, following long-term training, experts require less effort to plan motor skill performance. However, no longitudinal evidence exists to support this claim. To address this, EEG was used to study the effect of motor skill training on cortical activity related to motor planning. Ten non-musicians took part in a 5-week training study learning to play guitar. At week 1, the MRCP was recorded from motor areas whilst participants played the G Major scale. Following a period of practice of the scale, the MRCP was recorded again at week 5. Results showed that the amplitude of the later pre-movement components were smaller at week 5 compared to week 1. This may indicate that, following training, less activity at motor cortex sites is involved in motor skill preparation. This supports claims for a more efficient motor preparation following motor skill training. © 2012 Wright et al. Source


Tuft M.,Neuropsychology Center | Gjelsvik B.,University of Oxford | Nakken K.O.,University of Oslo
Epilepsy and Behavior | Year: 2015

Ian Curtis was the front man of the post-punk band Joy Division. He suffered from epilepsy and actively incorporated his experiences of the disease in his lyrics. Curtis had frequent epileptic seizures, both on and off stage. After dying from suicide in 1980, he became a legend in the post-punk milieu. The impact which the epilepsy, the epilepsy treatment, and comorbid depression had on his artistic life and premature death is not well known. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source


Tuft M.,Neuropsychology Center | Gjelsvik B.,University of Oxford | Nakken K.O.,University of Oslo
Epilepsy and Behavior | Year: 2015

In "Epilepsy is Dancing", in Antony and the Johnsons' album "The Crying Light"(2009), the lyrics and accompanying music video depicts an epileptic seizure in which the person is transferred to another beautiful and magical world. This may be called "enchanted epilepsy" i.e., the experience of epilepsy as deeply nourishing and (positively) transforming, is conveyed not only in the lyrics but also the visual and auditory qualities of the video. The seizure in the video gives associations to Shakespeare's "A Midsummer Night's dream".If epilepsy appears in music lyrics, the focus is mostly on negative aspects of the illness, such as horror, fear and repulsive sexuality associated with the fits [1,2]. Contradictory to these lyrics, Anthony and the Johnsons' song is an example of a positive portrayal of epilepsy. It is open to a multitude of meanings, emotional valence and appraisal of epilepsy. By widening the experiential range associated with epileptic seizures, these lyrics highlight the inherently construed nature of epileptic experience. The song stands out in several ways. First, it describes epilepsy in positive terms, prioritising the euphoric, ecstatic, potentially empowering and enhancing aspects of epileptic seizures. Second, the lyrics and accompanying video point to divine experiences associated with epileptic seizures. Through the lyrics and the music video we are, as an audience, able to sense a snicket of an epileptic seizure, but also the universal experience of loosing control. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source


Taddei F.,Foro Italico University of Rome | Bultrini A.,Foro Italico University of Rome | Spinelli D.,Foro Italico University of Rome | Spinelli D.,Neuropsychology Center | And 2 more authors.
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise | Year: 2012

Purpose: Open-skill sports require high levels of visual attention and fast and flexible decision making and action execution. We evaluated whether these sports may counteract the well-known age-related declines in executive processing. Methods: Young and middle-age fencers and nonathletes were studied. Participants (N = 40) performed visual motor tasks while reaction times (RTs) and event-related potentials were recorded. Results: RTs were slower for the older subjects, but accuracy was not impaired. At event-related potential level, the late P3 component was delayed in older subjects, but those who participated in sports showed less delay. The RTs of middle-age and young fencers were comparable; the P1 latency of middle-age fencers was similar to that of the younger subjects; the N1 was enhanced in older, as well as younger, fencers; the N2 component of fencers had shorter latencies and larger amplitudes than nonathletes; and in no-go trials, the P3 component was enhanced in fencers independent of age. Conclusions: Overall, the practice of open-skill sports was associated with improvement of the executive functions that are already degraded at middle age. © 2012 by the American College of Sports Medicine. Source

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