Halberstadt A.L.,University of California at San Diego |
Buell M.R.,University of California at San Diego |
Price D.L.,University of California at San Diego |
Price D.L.,Neuropore Therapies Inc. |
And 2 more authors.
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior
The indirect serotonin (5-HT) agonist 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) produces a distinct behavioral profile in rats consisting of locomotor hyperactivity, thigmotaxis, and decreased exploration. The indirect 5-HT agonist α-ethyltryptamine (AET) produces a similar behavioral profile. Using the Behavioral Pattern Monitor (BPM), the present investigation examined whether the effects of MDMA and AET are dependent on the novelty of the testing environment. These experiments were conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats housed on a reversed light cycle and tested during the dark phase of the light/dark cycle. We found that racemic MDMA (RS-MDMA; 3 mg/kg, SC) increased locomotor activity in rats tested in novel BPM chambers, but had no effect on locomotor activity in rats habituated to the BPM chambers immediately prior to testing. Likewise, AET (5 mg/kg, SC) increased locomotor activity in non-habituated animals but not in animals habituated to the test chambers. These results were unexpected because previous reports indicate that MDMA has robust locomotor-activating effects in habituated animals. To further examine the influence of habituation on MDMA-induced locomotor activity, we conducted parametric studies with S-(+)-MDMA (the more active enantiomer) in habituated and non-habituated rats housed on a standard or reversed light cycle. Light cycle was included as a variable due to reported differences in sensitivity to serotonergic ligands during the dark and light phases. In confirmation of our initial studies, rats tested during the dark phase and habituated to the BPM did not show an S-(+)-MDMA (3 mg/kg, SC)-induced increase in locomotor activity, whereas non-habituated rats did. By contrast, in rats tested during the light phase, S-(+)-MDMA increased locomotor activity in both non-habituated and habituated rats, although the response in habituated animals was attenuated. The finding that habituation and light cycle interact to influence MDMA- and AET-induced hyperactivity demonstrates that there are previously unrecognized complexities associated with the behavioral effects of these drugs. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source
Neuropore Therapies Inc. | Date: 2010-12-16
Neuropore Therapies Inc. | Date: 2016-04-06
compounds, chemicals, biologics and tools for prognosis, monitoring, diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, discovery or prevention of disease(s), disorder(s), and/or condition(s) in humans and animals.
Neuropore Therapies Inc. | Date: 2013-08-08
The present disclosure relates to certain aryl- or heteroaryl-substituted benzene derivatives, pharmaceutical compositions containing them, and methods of using them, including methods for modulating autophagy or preventing, reversing, slowing or inhibiting the PI3K-AKT-MTOR pathway, and methods of treating diseases that are associated with autophagy or the PI3K-AKT-MTOR pathway.
Neuropore Therapies Inc. | Date: 2013-03-15
The present invention relates to certain phenyl-urea and phenyl-carbamate derivatives, pharmaceutical compositions containing them, and methods of using them, including methods for preventing, reversing, slowing, or inhibiting protein aggregation, and methods of treating diseases that are associated with protein aggregation, including neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinsons disease, Alzheimers disease, Lewy body disease, and multiple system atrophy.