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Barcelona, Spain

Hernandez-Guillamon M.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Garcia-Bonilla L.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Sole M.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Sosti V.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | And 12 more authors.
Stroke | Year: 2010

Background and purpose: Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) is a cell surface and circulating enzyme involved in recruitment of lymphocytes and neutrophils through its semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) activity. We aimed to study plasma VAP-1/SSAO activity in relation to the risk for intracranial bleeding complications in patients with stroke treated with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), the greatest safety concern with this treatment. Methods: In 141 patients with ischemic stroke, we measured VAP-1/SSAO activity in plasma taken before tPA administration. Hemorrhagic events were classified according to brain CT criteria and functional outcomes evaluated using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale. We also assessed the potential therapeutic effect of blocking VAP-1/SSAO activity in a rat embolic stroke model treated with tPA. Results: We saw significantly higher levels of plasma VAP-1/SSAO activity in patients who subsequently experienced hemorrhagic transformation. Elevated plasma VAP-1/SSAO activity also predicted worse neurological outcome in these patients. In the rat model, we confirmed that use of the inhibitor semicarbazide prevented adverse effects caused by delayed tPA administration, leading to a smaller infarct volume. Conclusions: Our data demonstrate that baseline VAP-1/SSAO activity predicts parenchymal hemorrhage after tPA, suggesting the safety of thrombolytic agents could be improved by considering VAP-1/SSAO activity. Furthermore, anti-VAP-1/SSAO drugs given with tPA may prevent neurological worsening in patients with ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2010 American Heart Association. All rights reserved. Source

Poulton C.J.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Schot R.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Kia S.K.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Jones M.,Neuropathology Unit | And 6 more authors.
American Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2011

We describe a syndrome of primary microcephaly with simplified gyral pattern in combination with severe infantile epileptic encephalopathy and early-onset permanent diabetes in two unrelated consanguineous families with at least three affected children. Linkage analysis revealed a region on chromosome 18 with a significant LOD score of 4.3. In this area, two homozygous nonconserved missense mutations in immediate early response 3 interacting protein 1 (IER3IP1) were found in patients from both families. IER3IP1 is highly expressed in the fetal brain cortex and fetal pancreas and is thought to be involved in endoplasmic reticulum stress response. We reported one of these families previously in a paper on Wolcott-Rallison syndrome (WRS). WRS is characterized by increased apoptotic cell death as part of an uncontrolled unfolded protein response. Increased apoptosis has been shown to be a cause of microcephaly in animal models. An autopsy specimen from one patient showed increased apoptosis in the cerebral cortex and pancreas beta cells, implicating premature cell death as the pathogenetic mechanism. Both patient fibroblasts and control fibroblasts treated with siRNA specific for IER3IP1 showed an increased susceptibility to apoptotic cell death under stress conditions in comparison to controls. This directly implicates IER3IP1 in the regulation of cell survival. Identification of IER3IP1 mutations sheds light on the mechanisms of brain development and on the pathogenesis of infantile epilepsy and early-onset permanent diabetes. © 2011 The American Society of Human Genetics. Source

Su Z.,University of Manchester | Herholz K.,University of Manchester | Gerhard A.,University of Manchester | Roncaroli F.,Imperial College London | And 4 more authors.
European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging | Year: 2013

Purpose: Translocator protein (TSPO) is a biomarker of neuroinflammation that can be imaged by PET using [11C]-(R)PK11195. We sought to characterize the [11C]-(R)PK11195 kinetics in gliomas of different histotypes and grades, and to compare two reference tissue input functions (supervised cluster analysis versus cerebellar grey matter) for the estimation of [11C]-(R)PK11195 binding in gliomas and surrounding brain structures. Methods: Twenty-three glioma patients and ten age-matched controls underwent structural MRI and dynamic [11C]-(R)PK11195 PET scans. Tissue time-activity curves (TACs) were extracted from tumour regions as well as grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) of the brains. Parametric maps of binding potential (BPND) were generated with the simplified reference tissue model using the two input functions, and were compared with each other. TSPO expression was assessed in tumour tissue sections by immunohistochemistry. Results: Three types of regional kinetics were observed in individual tumour TACs: GM-like kinetics (n = 6, clearance of the tracer similar to that in cerebellar GM), WM-like kinetics (n = 8, clearance of the tracer similar to that in cerebral WM) and a form of mixed kinetics (n = 9, intermediate rate of clearance). Such kinetic patterns differed between low-grade astrocytomas (WM-like kinetics) and oligodendrogliomas (GM-like and mixed kinetics), but were independent of tumour grade. There was good agreement between parametric maps of BPND derived from the two input functions in all controls and 10 of 23 glioma patients. In 13 of the 23 patients, BPND values derived from the supervised cluster input were systematically smaller than those using the cerebellar input. Immunohistochemistry confirmed that TSPO expression increased with tumour grade. Conclusion: The three types of [ 11C]-(R)PK11195 kinetics in gliomas are determined in part by tracer delivery, and indicated that kinetic analysis is a valuable tool in the study of gliomas with the potential for in vivo discrimination between low-grade astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas. Supervised cluster and cerebellar input functions produced consistent BPND estimates in approximately half of the gliomas investigated, but had a systematic difference in the remainder. The cerebellar input is preferred based on theoretical and practical considerations. © 2013 The Author(s). Source

Cuadrado E.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Rosell A.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Colome N.,University of Barcelona | Hernandez-Guillamon M.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology | Year: 2010

Although stroke is among the most common causes of death and chronic disability worldwide, the proteome of the ischemic human brain remains unknown. Only a few studies have investigated the ischemic brain proteome in rodent stroke models. We performed aproteomic study of the human brain after ischemic stroke usinga 2-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis-based proteomic approach. In brain samples from 6 deceased stroke patients and 3 control subjects, there was an average of 1,442 ± 231 protein spots in the gels. Changes of at least 1.5-fold in the relative expression of 132 protein spots between different cerebral areas (infarct core, peri-infarct, and contralateral tissue) were identified (p < 0.05); 39 of these were successfully identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Among the identified protein spots, we validated the results of 10 proteins by Western blot and determined the cellular localization in brain parenchyma for 3 of the identified proteins: dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 2, vesicle-fusing ATPase, and Rho dissociation inhibitor 1. These results contribute to understanding the processes that follow cerebral ischemia; moreover, some of the identified proteins may be therapeutic targets or biologic markers for determining the diagnosis and prognosis of stroke. © 2010 by the American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc. Source

Pollo B.,Neuropathology Unit
Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging | Year: 2012

The tumors of the central nervous system are classified according to the last international classification published by World Health Organization. The Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System was done on 2007, based on morphological features, growth pattern and molecular profile of neoplastic cells, defining malignancy grade. The neuropathological diagnosis and the grading of each histotype are based on identification of histopathological criteria and immunohistochemical data. The histopathology, also consisting of findings with prognostic or predictive relevance, plays a critical role in the diagnosis and treatment of brain tumors. The recent progresses on radiological, pathological, immunohistochemical, molecular and genetic diagnosis improved the characterization of brain tumors. Molecular and genetic profiles may identify different tumor subtypes varying in biological and clinical behavior. To investigate new therapeutic approaches is important to study the molecular pathways that lead the processes of proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, anaplastic transformation. Different molecular biomarkers were identified by genetic studies and some of these are used in neuro-oncology for the evaluation of glioma patients, in particular combined deletions of the chromosome arms 1p and 19q in oligodendroglial tumors, methylation status of the 0-6 methylguanine- DNA methyltransferase gene promoter and alterations in the epidermal growth factor receptor pathway in adult malignant gliomas, isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and IDH2 gene mutations in diffuse gliomas, as well as BRAF status in pilocytic astrocytomas. The prognostic evaluation and the therapeutic strategies for patients depend on synthesis of clinical, pathological and biological data: histological diagnosis, malignancy grade, gene-molecular profile, radiological pictures, surgical resection and clinical findings (age, tumor location, "performance status"). Source

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