Neuropathology Laboratory

Mayo, FL, United States

Neuropathology Laboratory

Mayo, FL, United States
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Nedelska Z.,Mayo Medical School | Nedelska Z.,Charles University | Nedelska Z.,St Annes University Hospital Brno | Boeve B.F.,Mayo Medical School | And 14 more authors.
Neurobiology of Aging | Year: 2015

Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is characterized by preserved whole brain and medial temporal lobe volumes compared with Alzheimer's disease dementia (AD) on magnetic resonance imaging. However, frequently coexistent AD-type pathology may influence the pattern of regional brain atrophy rates in DLB patients. We investigated the pattern and magnitude of the atrophy rates from 2 serial MRIs in autopsy-confirmed DLB patients (n = 20) and mixed DLB/AD patients (n = 22), compared with AD (n = 30) and elderly nondemented control subjects (n = 15), followed antemortem. DLB patients without significant AD-type pathology were characterized by lower global and regional rates of atrophy, similar to control subjects. The mixed DLB/AD patients displayed greater atrophy rates in the whole brain, temporoparietal cortices, hippocampus and amygdala, and ventricle expansion, similar to AD patients. In the DLB and DLB/AD patients, the atrophy rates correlated with Braak neurofibrillary tangle stage, cognitive decline, and progression of motor symptoms. Global and regional atrophy rates are associated with AD-type pathology in DLB, and these rates can be used as biomarkers of AD progression in patients with LB pathology. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Seidel K.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Schols L.,University of Tübingen | Nuber S.,University of Tübingen | Petrasch-Parwez E.,Ruhr University Bochum | And 10 more authors.
Annals of Neurology | Year: 2010

Familial Parkinson disease (PD) due to the A30P mutation in the SNCA gene encoding alpha-synuclein is clinically associated with PD symptoms. In this first pathoanatomical study of the brain of an A30P mutation carrier, we observed neuronal loss in the substantia nigra, locus coeruleus, and dorsal motor vagal nucleus, as well as widespread occurrence of alpha-synuclein immunopositive Lewy bodies, Lewy neurites, and glial aggregates. Alpha-synuclein aggregates ultrastructurally resembled Lewy bodies, and biochemical analyses disclosed a significant load of insoluble alpha-synuclein, indicating neuropathological similarities between A30P disease patients and idiopathic PD, with a more severe neuropathology in A30P carriers.

Hoffman-Zacharska D.,Institute of Mother and Child | Hoffman-Zacharska D.,University of Warsaw | Koziorowski D.,Medical University of Warsaw | Milewski M.,Institute of Mother and Child | And 14 more authors.
Parkinsonism and Related Disorders | Year: 2013

Objective: Mutations in the α-synuclein-encoding gene SNCA are considered as a rare cause of Parkinson's disease (PD). Our objective was to examine the frequency of the SNCA point mutations among PD patients of Polish origin. Methods: Detection of the known SNCA point mutations A30P (c.88G>C), E46K (c.136G>A) and A53T (c.157A>T) was performed either using the Sequenom MassArray iPLEX platform or by direct sequencing of the SNCA exons 2 and 3. As the two novel substitutions A18T (c.52G>A) and A29S (c.85G>T) were identified, their frequency in a control population of Polish origin was assessed and in silico analysis performed to investigate the potential impact on protein structure and function. Results: We did not observe the previously reported point mutations in the SNCA gene in our 629 PD patients; however, two novel potentially pathogenic substitutions A18T and A29S were identified. Each variant was observed in a single patient presenting with a typical late-onset sporadic PD phenotype. Although neither variant was observed in control subjects and in silico protein analysis predicts a damaging effect for A18T and pA29S substitutions, the lack of family history brings into question the true pathogenicity of these rare variants. Conclusions: Larger population based studies are needed to determine the pathogenicity of the A18T and A29S substitutions. Our findings highlight the possible role of rare variants contributing to disease risk and may support further screening of the SNCA gene in sporadic PD patients from different populations. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Nassehi D.,Neuropathology Laboratory | Sorensen L.P.,Neuropathology Laboratory | Dyrbye H.,Neuropathology Laboratory | Thomsen C.,Copenhagen University | And 2 more authors.
APMIS | Year: 2013

The aim of this work was to study the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) pathway and peritumoral brain edema (PTBE) through comparison of non-angiomatous and angiomatous meningiomas. Meningiomas are common intracranial tumors, which often have PTBE. VEGF-A is an integral part of PTBE formation and angiogenesis, and the capillary-rich angiomatous meningiomas are known for their PTBE. The VEGF-A receptor VEGFR-2 is responsible for the angiogenic effect of VEGF-A on endothelial cells, which is enhanced by the co-receptor neuropilin-1. Forty non-angiomatous, 22 angiomatous meningiomas, and 10 control tissue samples were collected for the study. Magnetic resonance images were available for 40 non-angiomatous and 10 angiomatous meningiomas. Tissue sections were immunostained for CD34, MIB-1, estrogen- and progesterone receptors. ELISA, chemiluminescence, and RT-qPCR were used for VEGF-A, VEGFR-2, and neuropilin-1 protein and mRNA quantification. Angiomatous meningiomas had larger PTBE (695 vs 218 cm3, p = 0.0045) and longer capillary length (3614 vs 605 mm/mm3, p < 0.0001). VEGF-A mRNA, neuropilin-1 mRNA, and VEGFR-2 protein levels were higher in angiomatous meningiomas independently of the capillary length (p < 0.05). Neuropilin-1 protein levels were lower in angiomatous meningiomas (p < 0.0001). The VEGF-A pathway and tumor capillary length may be essential for PTBE-formation in meningiomas. Further investigations of this pathway could lead to earlier therapy and targeted pharmacological treatment options. © 2013 The Authors APMIS © 2013 APMIS.

De Pedro-Cuesta J.,Carlos III Institute of Health | Mahillo-Fernandez I.,Carlos III Institute of Health | Rabano A.,Fundacion Alcorcon University Teaching Hospital | Calero M.,Consortium for Biomedical Res. in Neurodeg. Dis. Ctro. de Invest. Biomedica en Red Sobre Enferm. | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry | Year: 2011

Objectives: Evidence of surgical transmission of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) remains debatable in part due to misclassification of exposure levels. In a registry-based case-control study, the authors applied a risk-based classification of surgical interventions to determine the association between a history of surgery and sCJD. Design: Case-control study, allowing for detailed analysis according to time since exposure. Setting: National populations of Denmark and Sweden. Participants: From national registries of Denmark and Sweden, the authors included 167 definite and probable sCJD cases with onset during the period 1987-2003, 835 age-, sex- and residence-matched controls and 2224 unmatched. Surgical procedures were categorised by anatomical structure and presumed risk of transmission level. The authors used logistic regression to determine the odds ratio (OR) for sCJD by surgical interventions in specified time-windows before disease-onset. Results: From comparisons with matched controls, procedures involving retina and optic nerve were associated with an increased risk at a latency of ≥1 year OR (95% CI) 5.53 (1.08 to 28.0). At latencies of 10 to 19 years, interventions on peripheral nerves 4.41 (1.17 to 16.6) and skeletal muscle 1.58 (1.01 to 2.48) were directly associated. Interventions on blood vessels 4.54 (1.01 to 20.0), peritoneum 2.38 (1.14 to 4.96) and skeletal muscle 2.04 (1.06 to 3.92), interventions conducted by vaginal approach 2.26 (1.14 to 4.47) and a pooled category of lower-risk procedures 2.81 (1.62 to 4.88) had an increased risk after ≥20 years. Similar results were found when comparing with unmatched controls. Interpretation: This observation is in concordance with animal models of prion neuroinvasion and is likely to represent a causal relation of surgery with a non-negligible proportion of sCJD cases.

Montine T.J.,University of Washington | Koroshetz W.J.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Babcock D.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Dickson D.W.,Neuropathology Laboratory | And 18 more authors.
Neurology | Year: 2014

The National Alzheimer's Project Act, signed into law in 2011, mandates a National Plan to Address Alzheimer's Disease that is updated annually. In the Plan, the term Alzheimer disease includes not only Alzheimer disease (AD) proper, but also several specified related dementias, namely, frontotemporal, Lewy body, vascular, and mixed dementia. In response to a specific action item in the 2012 National Plan, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, in collaboration with the National Institute on Aging, convened panels of experts and conducted a 2-day public conference to develop research priorities and timelines for addressing Alzheimer disease-related dementias (ADRD) in 5 topic areas: multiple etiology dementias, health disparities, Lewy body dementias including dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson disease dementia, frontotemporal dementia and related tauopathies, and vascular contributions to ADRD. By design, the product was up to 8 prioritized research recommendations in each topic area including estimated timelines from when work on a recommendation is started to completion or to full implementation of an ongoing activity, and recognition of shared research themes across recommendations. These included increased education and training of both researchers and health care professionals, addressing health disparities, fundamental neurobiology research, advanced diagnostics, collaborative biosample repositories, and a focus on developing effective interventions to prevent or treat ADRD by the year 2025 as targeted by the National Plan.

Drogemuller C.,University of Bern | Becker D.,University of Bern | Kessler B.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Kemter E.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

The polyneuropathy of juvenile Greyhound show dogs shows clinical similarities to the genetically heterogeneous Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease in humans. The pedigrees containing affected dogs suggest monogenic autosomal recessive inheritance and all affected dogs trace back to a single male. Here, we studied the neuropathology of this disease and identified a candidate causative mutation. Peripheral nerve biopsies from affected dogs were examined using semi-thin histology, nerve fibre teasing and electron microscopy. A severe chronic progressive mixed polyneuropathy was observed. Seven affected and 17 related control dogs were genotyped on the 50k canine SNP chip. This allowed us to localize the causative mutation to a 19.5 Mb interval on chromosome 13 by homozygosity mapping. The NDRG1 gene is located within this interval and NDRG1 mutations have been shown to cause hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy-Lom in humans (CMT4D). Therefore, we considered NDRG1 a positional and functional candidate gene and performed mutation analysis in affected and control Greyhounds. A 10 bp deletion in canine NDRG1 exon 15 (c.1080_1089delTCGCCTGGAC) was perfectly associated with the polyneuropathy phenotype of Greyhound show dogs. The deletion causes a frame shift (p.Arg361SerfsX60) which alters several amino acids before a stop codon is encountered. A reduced level of NDRG1 transcript could be detected by RT-PCR. Western blot analysis demonstrated an absence of NDRG1 protein in peripheral nerve biopsy of an affected Greyhound. We thus have identified a candidate causative mutation for polyneuropathy in Greyhounds and identified the first genetically characterized canine CMT model which offers an opportunity to gain further insights into the pathobiology and therapy of human NDRG1 associated CMT disease. Selection against this mutation can now be used to eliminate polyneuropathy from Greyhound show dogs. © 2010 Drögemüller et al.

Huang E.J.,University of California at San Francisco | Zhang J.,University of California at San Francisco | Geser F.,University of California at San Francisco | Trojanowski J.Q.,University of California at San Francisco | And 4 more authors.
Brain Pathology | Year: 2010

Juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with basophilic inclusions is a well-recognized entity. However, the molecular underpinnings of this devastating disease are poorly understood. Here, we present genetic and neuropathological characterizations in two young women with fatal rapidly progressive ALS with basophilic inclusions. In one case, a germline mutation (P525L) was detected in the fused in sarcoma/translocated in liposarcoma (FUS/TLS) gene, whereas no mutation was identified in the other case. Postmortem examination in both cases revealed severe loss of spinal motor neurons with remaining neurons showing basophilic inclusions that contain abnormal aggregates of FUS proteins and disorganized intracellular organelles, including mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. In both patients, the FUS-positive inclusions were also detected in neurons in layers IVV of cerebral cortex and several brainstem nuclei. In contrast, spinal motor neurons in patients with late-onset sporadic ALS showed no evidence of abnormal accumulation of FUS protein. These results underscore the importance of FUS mutations and pathology in rapidly progressive juvenile ALS. Furthermore, our study represents the first detailed characterizations of neuropathological findings in rapidly progressive juvenile ALS patients with a mutation in the FUS/TLS gene. © Brain Pathology 2010.

Hoarau J.-J.,University of Reunion Island | Krejbich-Trotot P.,University of Reunion Island | Jaffar-Bandjee M.-C.,University of Reunion Island | Jaffar-Bandjee M.-C.,Virology Laboratory | And 5 more authors.
CNS and Neurological Disorders - Drug Targets | Year: 2011

Innate immunity is an arsenal of molecules and receptors expressed by professional phagocytes, glial cells and neurons and involved in host defence and clearance of toxic and dangerous cell debris. However, any uncontrolled innate immune responses within the central nervous system (CNS) are widely recognized as playing a major role in the development of autoimmune disorders and neurodegeneration, with multiple sclerosis (MS) and Alzheimer's diseases (AD) being primary examples. Critically, neuroimmune regulatory proteins (NIReg) may control the adverse immune responses in health and diseases. NIRegs are found mainly on neurons, glia, endothelia and ependymal cells and include GPI-anchored molecules (CD24, CD90, complement regulators CD55 and CD59), molecules of the immunoglobulin superfamily (siglec CD22, Siglec 10, CD200, ICAM-5) and others (CD47, fractalkine, TAM receptor tyrosine kinase and complement C3a and factor H). These regulators modulate the innate immune response in the CNS and for instance critically control the level of phagocytosis and inflammation engaged by resident microglia and infiltrating immune cells. Others will sequester and neutralize proinflammatory molecules such as HMGB1 and DNA. Moreover, some NIRegs can instigate the recruitment of stem cells to mediate tissue repair. In the absence of these regulators, when neurons die by apoptosis, become infected or damaged, microglia and infiltrating immune cells are free to cause injury and an adverse inflammatory response in acute and chronic settings. The therapeutic applications of NIRegs should be exploited given their natural and selective healing properties. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers.

Kelley B.J.,Mayo Medical School | Kelley B.J.,Robert H And Clarice Smith And Abigail Van Buren Alzheimers Disease Research Program | Haidar W.,Mayo Medical School | Haidar W.,Robert H And Clarice Smith And Abigail Van Buren Alzheimers Disease Research Program | And 16 more authors.
Archives of Neurology | Year: 2010

Objective: To characterize a kindred with a familial neurodegenerative disorder associated with a mutation in progranulin (PGRN), with emphasis on the unique clinical features in this kindred. Design: Antemortem and postmortem characterization of a kindred with a familial neurodegenerative disorder. Setting: Multispecialty group academic medical center. Patients: Affected members of a kindred with dementia with or without parkinsonism associated with a unique mutation in PGRN. Main Outcome Measure: Genotype-phenotype correlation. Results: Of 10 affected individuals identified, 6 presented with early amnestic symptoms which resulted in initial diagnoses of Alzheimer disease or amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Some individuals presented with features characteristic of frontotemporal dementia. Mean age at onset was substantially younger in generation III (75.8 years; range, 69-80 years) than in generation II (60.7 years; range, 55-66 years). The pattern of cerebral atrophy varied widely in the affected individuals. Neuropathologic features in 6 individuals included frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive neuronal cytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusions (FTLD-U with NII). PGRN analysis revealed a single base pair deletion in exon 2 (c.154delA), which caused a frameshift (p.Thr52HisfsX2) and, therefore, creation of a premature termination codon and a likely null allele. Conclusions: In this large kindred, most affected individuals had clinical presentations that resembled Alzheimer disease or amnestic mild cognitive impairment associated with a mutation in PGRN and underlying FTLD-U with NII neuropathologic abnormalities. This finding is in distinct contrast to previously reported kindreds, in which clinical presentations have typically been within the spectrum of FTLD. The basis for the large difference in age at onset between generations requires further study. ©2010 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.

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