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Mountain View, CA, United States

Objectives: This multicenter, double-blind, randomized controlled trial assessed the safety and effectiveness of responsive cortical stimulation as an adjunctive therapy for partial onset seizures in adults with medically refractory epilepsy. Methods: A total of 191 adults with medically intractable partial epilepsy were implanted with a responsive neurostimulator connected to depth or subdural leads placed at 1 or 2 predetermined seizure foci. The neurostimulator was programmed to detect abnormal electrocorticographic activity. One month after implantation, subjects were randomized 1:1 to receive stimulation in response to detections (treatment) or to receive no stimulation (sham). Efficacy and safety were assessed over a 12-week blinded period and a subsequent 84-week open-label period during which all subjects received responsive stimulation. Results: Seizures were significantly reduced in the treatment (-37.9%, n = 97) compared to the sham group (-17.3%, n = 94; p = 0.012) during the blinded period and there was no difference between the treatment and sham groups in adverse events. During the open-label period, the seizure reduction was sustained in the treatment group and seizures were significantly reduced in the sham group when stimulation began. There were significant improvements in overall quality of life (p < 0.02) and no deterioration in mood or neuropsychological function. Conclusions: Responsive cortical stimulation reduces the frequency of disabling partial seizures, is associated with improvements in quality of life, and is well-tolerated with no mood or cognitive effects. Responsive stimulation may provide another adjunctive treatment option for adults with medically intractable partial seizures. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that responsive cortical stimulation is effective in significantly reducing seizure frequency for 12 weeks in adults who have failed 2 or more antiepileptic medication trials,3or more seizures per month, and 1 or 2 seizure foci. © 2011 by AAN Enterprises, Inc.


Patent
NeuroPace | Date: 2015-07-09

An implantable neurostimulator system for treating pain includes scheduled and responsive therapy capabilities including responsive stimulation applied to the brain and peripheral sections of the nervous system. Methods for treating chronic nociceptive, neuropathic, and psychogenic pain employ an inventive system to advantageously reduce multiple symptoms and components of pain and to address underlying causes of pain.


Establishing secure communication between an implantable medical device and an external device includes: accessing, at the implantable medical device, biological data; utilizing the biological data, at the implantable medical device, to generate a public cryptographic key; and utilizing the public cryptographic key, at the implantable medical device, to generate a private cryptographic key.


An external data retrieval apparatus includes a transceiver, and a processing system coupled to the transceiver. The processing system obtains a plurality of measures over a period of time. The measures relate to a quality of a communications channel between the data retrieval apparatus and an active implantable medical device. The processing system determines a trend in the plurality of measures over the period of time, and then determines a preferred time during which to retrieve data based on the trend.


An external data retrieval apparatus includes a transceiver, and a processing system coupled to the transceiver. The processing system obtains a plurality of measures over a period of time. The measures relate to a quality of a communications channel between the data retrieval apparatus and an active implantable medical device. The processing system determines a trend in the plurality of measures over the period of time, and then determines a preferred time during which to retrieve data based on the trend.

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