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Waltham, MA, United States

Tracey B.,Tufts University | Williams M.,NeuroMetrix
Journal of Neural Engineering | Year: 2011

Standard bioelectric field models assume that the tissue is purely resistive and frequency independent, and that capacitance, induction, and propagation effects can be neglected. However, real tissue properties are frequency dependent, and tissue capacitance can be important for problems involving short stimulation pulses. A straightforward interpolation scheme is introduced here that can account for frequency-dependent effects, while reducing runtime over a direct computation by several orders of magnitude. The exact Helmholtz solution is compared to several approximate field solutions and is used to study neural stimulation. Results show that frequency-independent tissue capacitance always acts to attenuate the stimulation pulse, thereby increasing firing thresholds, while the dispersion effects introduced by frequency-dependent capacitance may decrease firing thresholds. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd. Source


Apparatus for transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in humans, the apparatus comprising:


Apparatus for measuring sural nerve conduction velocity and amplitude, the apparatus comprising:


Apparatus for transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in humans, comprising a housing; stimulation means mounted within the housing for electrically stimulating nerves; an electrode array releasably mounted to the housing, connectable to the stimulation means, and comprising electrodes for electrical stimulation of nerves; control means mounted to the housing and electrically connected to the stimulation means for controlling the stimulation means; monitoring means mounted to the housing and electrically connected to the stimulation means for monitoring the stimulation means; user interface means mounted to the housing and electrically connected to the control means for controlling the stimulation means; display means mounted to the housing and electrically connected to the control means and the monitoring means for displaying the status of the stimulations means; and a strap attached to the housing and configured to hold the housing, stimulation means and electrode array at a specific anatomical location to treat pain.


Apparatus for transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in a user, the apparatus comprising:

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