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Elkhart, United States

Dall T.M.,IHS Healthcare and Pharma | Storm M.V.,IHS Healthcare and Pharma | Chakrabarti R.,IHS Healthcare and Pharma | Drogan O.,American Academy of Neurology | And 6 more authors.
Neurology | Year: 2013

Objective: This study estimates current and projects future neurologist supply and demand under alternative scenarios nationally and by state from 2012 through 2025. Methods: A microsimulation supply model simulates likely career choices of individual neurologists, taking into account the number of newneurologists trained each year and changing demographics of the neurology workforce. A microsimulation demand model simulates utilization of neurology services for each individual in a representative sample of the population in each state and for the United States as a whole. Demand projections reflect increased prevalence of neurologic conditions associated with population growth and aging, and expanded coverage under health care reform. Results: The estimated active supply of 16,366 neurologists in 2012 is projected to increase to 18,060 by 2025. Long wait times for patients to see a neurologist, difficulty hiring new neurologists, and large numbers of neurologists who do not accept new Medicaid patients are consistent with a current national shortfall of neurologists. Demand for neurologists is projected to increase from ;18,180 in 2012 (11% shortfall) to 21,440 by 2025 (19% shortfall). This includes an increased demand of 520 full-time equivalent neurologists starting in 2014 from expanded medical insurance coverage associated with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Conclusions: In the absence of efforts to increase the number of neurology professionals and retain the existing workforce, current national and geographic shortfalls of neurologists are likely to worsen, exacerbating long wait times and reducing access to care for Medicaid beneficiaries. Current geographic differences in adequacy of supply likely will persist into the future.© 2013 American Academy of Neurology. Source

Yoshikawa H.,Kanazawa University | Kiuchi T.,University of Tokyo | Saida T.,Institute of Neurotherapeutics | Takamori M.,Neurological Center
Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry | Year: 2011

Objectives: To evaluate the ability of tacrolimus to reduce the corticosteroid dose in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) and the drug's safety in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study. Methods: Patients being treated with oral prednisolone at doses equivalent to 10-20 mg/day, and with stable symptoms, were randomised to tacrolimus or placebo in a 28-week double-blind study. The dose of corticosteroid was tapered with the procedures specified in the protocol. The primary efficacy endpoint was the mean daily prednisolone dose given in the last 12 weeks of the study. Results: Eighty patients received the study drug (40 patients in each group) and were included in the full analysis set. In the full analysis set, there was no significant difference in the primary efficacy endpoint between the two groups (p=0.078). However, some secondary analyses suggested the steroid-sparing effect of tacrolimus. Tacrolimus was well tolerated, and no safety concerns were noted. Conclusions: This study suggests that tacrolimus has a potential advantage as a steroid-sparing agent in the treatment of MG patients. Clinical trial registration number: NCT00309088. Name of the trial registry: FK506 Phase 3 Study: A Study for Steroid Non-Resistant MG Patients. Source

Valdueza J.M.,Neurological Center | Doepp F.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Schreiber S.J.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Van Oosten B.W.,VU University Amsterdam | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism | Year: 2013

In 2006, Zamboni reintroduced the concept that chronic impaired venous outflow of the central nervous system is associated with multiple sclerosis (MS), coining the term of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency ('CCSVI'). The diagnosis of 'CCSVI' is based on sonographic criteria, which he found exclusively fulfilled in MS. The concept proposes that chronic venous outflow failure is associated with venous reflux and congestion and leads to iron deposition, thereby inducing neuroinflammation and degeneration. The revival of this concept has generated major interest in media and patient groups, mainly driven by the hope that endovascular treatment of 'CCSVI' could alleviate MS. Many investigators tried to replicate Zamboni's results with duplex sonography, magnetic resonance imaging, and catheter angiography. The data obtained here do generally not support the 'CCSVI' concept. Moreover, there are no methodologically adequate studies to prove or disprove beneficial effects of endovascular treatment in MS. This review not only gives a comprehensive overview of the methodological flaws and pathophysiologic implausibility of the 'CCSVI' concept, but also summarizes the multimodality diagnostic validation studies and open-label trials of endovascular treatment. In our view, there is currently no basis to diagnose or treat 'CCSVI' in the care of MS patients, outside of the setting of scientific research. © 2013 ISCBFM All rights reserved. Source

Doepp F.,Sclerosis Research Center | Doepp F.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Wurfel J.T.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Wurfel J.T.,Max Delbruck Center for Molecular Medicine | And 5 more authors.
Neurology | Year: 2011

Background: Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) was proposed as the causal trigger for developing multiple sclerosis (MS). However, current data are contradictory and a gold standard for venous flow assessment is missing. Objective: To compare structural magnetic resonance venography (MRV) and dynamic extracranial color-coded duplex sonography (ECCS) in a cohort of patients with MS. Methods: We enrolled 40 patients (44 ± 10 years). All underwent contrast-enhanced MRV for assessment of internal jugular vein (IJV) and azygos vein (AV) narrowing, graded into 3 groups: 0%-50%, 51%-80%, and > 80%. ECCS analysis of blood flow direction, cross-sectional area (CSA), and blood volume flow (BVF) in both IJV and vertebral veins (VV) occurred in the supine and upright body position. Results: MRV identified 1 AV narrowing. IJV analysis yielded 12 patients for group 1 (30%), 19 patients for group 2 (48%), and 9 patients for group 3 (22%). By ECCS criteria, 4 patients (10%) presented with venous drainage abnormalities. Jugular BVF was different only between groups 1 and 3 (616 ± 133 vs 381 ± 213 mL/min, p = 0.02). No other parameters in supine position and none of the parameters in the upright body position, apart from the IJV-BVF decrease in groups 1 and 3 (479 ± 172 vs 231 ± 144 mL/min, p = 0.01), were different. Conclusions: Our ECCS data contradict the postulated 100% prevalence of CCSVI criteria in MS. MRV seems more sensitive to detect IJV narrowing compared to ECCS. A measurable hemodynamic effect only exists in vessel narrowings >80%. Our combined data argue against a causal relationship of venous narrowing and MS, favoring the rejection of the CCSVI hypothesis. Copyright © 2011 by AAN Enterprises, Inc. Source

Hirose G.,Neurological Center
Brain and nerve = Shinkei kenkyū no shinpo | Year: 2014

William Richard Gowers is one of the great pioneers in neurology and the author of the well-known neurology textbook, "A Manual of Diseases of the Nervous System." His concepts of neurology are based on meticulously and carefully accumulated knowledge of history, observations, and neurological examinations of patients with various neurological diseases. He is not only a great neurologist but also a great teacher who loves teaching students and physicians through well-prepared lectures. We can glean the essence of the field of neurology through his life story and numerous writings concerning neurological diseases. Source

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