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Panigrahi R.,Tulane University | Chandra P.K.,Tulane University | Ferraris P.,Tulane University | Kurt R.,Tulane University | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Virology | Year: 2015

Ribavirin (RBV) continues to be an important component of interferon-free hepatitis C treatment regimens, as RBV alone does not inhibit hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication effectively; the reason for this ineffectiveness has not been established. In this study, we investigated the RBV resistance mechanism using a persistently HCV-infected cell culture system. The antiviral activity of RBV against HCV was progressively impaired in the persistently infected culture, whereas interferon lambda 1 (IFN-λ1), a type III IFN, showed a strong antiviral response and induced viral clearance. We found that HCV replication in persistently infected cultures induces an autophagy response that impairs RBV uptake by preventing the expression of equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1). The Huh-7.5 cell line treated with an autophagy inducer, Torin 1, downregulated membrane expression of ENT1 and terminated RBV uptake. In contrast, the autophagy inhibitors hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), 3-methyladenine (3-MA), and bafilomycin A1 (BafA1) prevented ENT1 degradation and enhanced RBV antiviral activity. The HCV-induced autophagy response, as well as treatment with Torin 1, degrades clathrin heavy chain expression in a hepatoma cell line. Reduced expression of the clathrin heavy chain by HCV prevents ENT1 recycling to the plasma membrane and forces ENT1 to the lysosome for degradation. This study provides a potential mechanism for the impairment of RBV antiviral activity in persistently HCV-infected cell cultures and suggests that inhibition of the HCV-induced autophagy response could be used as a strategy for improving RBV antiviral activity against HCV infection. © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. Source

Wilk A.,Neurological Cancer Research | Wilk A.,Stanley ott Cancer Center | Wilk A.,Health Science Center | Wyczechowska D.,Neurological Cancer Research | And 22 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Biology | Year: 2015

Fenofibrate (FF) is a common lipid-lowering drug and a potent agonist of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα). FF and several other agonists of PPARα have interesting anticancer properties, and our recent studies demonstrate that FF is very effective against tumor cells of neuroectodermal origin. In spite of these promising anticancer effects, the molecular mechanism(s) of FF-induced tumor cell toxicity remains to be elucidated. Here we report a novel PPARα-independent mechanism explaining FF's cytotoxicity in vitro and in an intracranial mouse model of glioblastoma. The mechanism involves accumulation of FF in the mitochondrial fraction, followed by immediate impairment of mitochondrial respiration at the level of complex I of the electron transport chain. This mitochondrial action sensitizes tested glioblastoma cells to the PPARα-dependent metabolic switch from glycolysis to fatty acid β-oxidation. As a consequence, prolonged exposure to FF depletes intracellular ATP, activates the AMP-activated protein kinase-mammalian target of rapamycin-autophagy pathway, and results in extensive tumor cell death. Interestingly, autophagy activators attenuate and autophagy inhibitors enhance FF-induced glioblastoma cytotoxicity. Our results explain the molecular basis of FF-induced glioblastoma cytotoxicity and reveal a new supplemental therapeutic approach in which intracranial infusion of FF could selectively trigger metabolic catastrophe in glioblastoma cells. © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. Source

Wilk A.,Neurological Cancer Research | Wilk A.,Stanley ott Cancer Center | Waligorska A.,Neurological Cancer Research | Waligorska A.,Stanley ott Cancer Center | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Cisplatin is one of the most widely used and effective anticancer drugs against solid tumors including cerebellar tumor of the childhood, Medulloblastoma. However, cancer cells often develop resistance to cisplatin, which limits therapeutic effectiveness of this otherwise effective genotoxic drug. In this study, we demonstrate that human medulloblastoma cell lines develop acute resistance to cisplatin in the presence of estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist, ICI182,780. This unexpected finding involves a switch from the G2/M to G1 checkpoint accompanied by decrease in ATM/Chk2 and increase in ATR/Chk1 phosphorylation. We have previously reported that ERβ, which is highly expressed in medulloblastomas, translocates insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) to the nucleus, and that nuclear IRS-1 binds to Rad51 and attenuates homologous recombination directed DNA repair (HRR). Here, we demonstrate that in the presence of ICI182,780, cisplatin-treated medulloblastoma cells show recruitment of Rad51 to the sites of damaged DNA and increase in HRR activity. This enhanced DNA repair during the S phase preserved also clonogenic potential of medulloblastoma cells treated with cisplatin. In conclusion, inhibition of ERβ considered as a supplemental anticancer therapy, has been found to interfere with cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in human medulloblastoma cell lines. © 2012 Wilk et al. Source

Kurt R.,Tulane University | Chandra P.K.,Tulane University | Aboulnasr F.,Tulane University | Panigrahi R.,Tulane University | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Background: Hepatic steatosis is a risk factor for both liver disease progression and an impaired response to interferon alpha (IFN-α)-based combination therapy in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Previously, we reported that free fatty acid (FFA)-treated HCV cell culture induces hepatocellular steatosis and impairs the expression of interferon alpha receptor-1 (IFNAR1), which is why the antiviral activity of IFN-α against HCV is impaired. Aim: To investigate the molecular mechanism by which IFNAR1 expression is impaired in HCV cell culture with or without free fatty acid-treatment. Method: HCV-infected Huh 7.5 cells were cultured with or without a mixture of saturated (palmitate) and unsaturated (oleate) long-chain free fatty acids (FFA). Intracytoplasmic fat accumulation in HCV-infected culture was visualized by oil red staining. Clearance of HCV in FFA cell culture treated with type I IFN (IFN-α) and Type III IFN (IFN-λ) was determined by Renilla luciferase activity, and the expression of HCV core was determined by immunostaining. Activation of Jak-Stat signaling in the FFA-treated HCV culture by IFN-α alone and IFN-λ alone was examined by Western blot analysis and confocal microscopy. Lysosomal degradation of IFNAR1 by chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) in the FFA-treated HCV cell culture model was investigated. Results: FFA treatment induced dose-dependent hepatocellular steatosis and lipid droplet accumulation in HCV-infected Huh-7.5 cells. FFA treatment of infected culture increased HCV replication in a concentration-dependent manner. Intracellular lipid accumulation led to reduced Stat phosphorylation and nuclear translocation, causing an impaired IFN-α antiviral response and HCV clearance. Type III IFN (IFN-λ), which binds to a separate receptor, induces Stat phosphorylation, and nuclear translocation as well as antiviral clearance in FFA-treated HCV cell culture. We show here that the HCV-induced autophagy response is increased in FFA-treated cell culture. Pharmacological inhibitors of lysosomal degradation, such as ammonium chloride and bafilomycin, prevented IFNAR1 degradation in FFA-treated HCV cell culture. Activators of chaperone-mediated autophagy, including 6-aminonicotinamide and nutrient starvation, decreased IFNAR1 levels in Huh-7.5 cells. Coimmunoprecipitation, colocalization and siRNA knockdown experiments revealed that IFNAR1 but not IFNLR1 interacts with HSC70 and LAMP2A, which are core components of chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA). Conclusion: Our study presents evidence indicating that chaperone-mediated autophagy targets IFNAR1 degradation in the lysosome in FFA-treated HCV cell culture. These results provide a mechanism for why HCV induced autophagy response selectively degrades type I but not the type III IFNAR1. © 2015 Kurt et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source

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