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Gang Q.,University College London | Bettencourt C.,University College London | Machado P.M.,University College London | Fox Z.,University College London | And 19 more authors.
Neurobiology of aging | Year: 2015

A previous study showed that, in carriers of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype ε3/ε3 or ε3/ε4, the presence of a very long (VL) polyT repeat allele in "translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 40" (TOMM40) was less frequent in patients with sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM) compared with controls and associated with a later age of sIBM symptom onset, suggesting a protective effect of this haplotype. To further investigate the influence of these genetic factors in sIBM, we analyzed a large sIBM cohort of 158 cases as part of an International sIBM Genetics Study. No significant association was found between APOE or TOMM40 genotypes and the risk of developing sIBM. We found that the presence of at least 1 VL polyT repeat allele in TOMM40 was significantly associated with about 4 years later onset of sIBM symptoms. The age of onset was delayed by 5 years when the patients were also carriers of the APOE genotype ε3/ε3. In addition, males were likely to have a later age of onset than females. Therefore, the TOMM40 VL polyT repeat, although not influencing disease susceptibility, has a disease-modifying effect on sIBM, which can be enhanced by the APOE genotype ε3/ε3. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


PubMed | University of Kansas Medical Center, University of California at Los Angeles, Ghent University, University College London and 4 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Neurobiology of aging | Year: 2015

A previous study showed that, in carriers of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype 3/3 or 3/4, the presence of a very long (VL) polyT repeat allele in translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 40 (TOMM40) was less frequent in patients with sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM) compared with controls and associated with a later age of sIBM symptom onset, suggesting a protective effect of this haplotype. To further investigate the influence of these genetic factors in sIBM, we analyzed a large sIBM cohort of 158 cases as part of an International sIBM Genetics Study. No significant association was found between APOE or TOMM40 genotypes and the risk of developing sIBM. We found that the presence of at least 1 VL polyT repeat allele in TOMM40 was significantly associated with about 4 years later onset of sIBM symptoms. The age of onset was delayed by 5 years when the patients were also carriers of the APOE genotype 3/3. In addition, males were likely to have a later age of onset than females. Therefore, the TOMM40 VL polyT repeat, although not influencing disease susceptibility, has a disease-modifying effect on sIBM, which can be enhanced by the APOE genotype 3/3.


Ripolone M.,University of Milan | Ronchi D.,University of Milan | Violano R.,University of Milan | Vallejo D.,University of Antioquia | And 18 more authors.
JAMA Neurology | Year: 2015

IMPORTANCE: The important depletion of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and the general depression of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex levels (including complex II) have been confirmed, implying an increasing paucity of mitochondria in the muscle from patients with types I, II, and III spinal muscular atrophy (SMA-I, -II, and-III, respectively). OBJECTIVE: To investigate mitochondrial dysfunction in a large series of muscle biopsy samples from patients with SMA. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We studied quadriceps muscle samples from 24 patients with genetically documented SMA and paraspinal muscle samples from 3 patients with SMA-II undergoing surgery for scoliosis correction. Postmortem muscle samples were obtained from 1 additional patient. Age-matched controls consisted of muscle biopsy specimens from healthy children aged 1 to 3 years who had undergone analysis for suspected myopathy. Analyses were performed at the Neuromuscular Unit, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico Foundation Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico-Milano, from April 2011 through January 2015. EXPOSURES: We used histochemical, biochemical, and molecular techniques to examine the muscle samples. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Respiratory chain activity and mitochondrial content. RESULTS: Results of histochemical analysis revealed that cytochrome-c oxidase (COX) deficiency was more evident in muscle samples from patients with SMA-I and SMA-II. Residual activities for complexes I, II, and IV in muscles from patients with SMA-I were 41%, 27%, and 30%, respectively, compared with control samples (P <.005). Muscle mtDNA content and cytrate synthase activity were also reduced in all 3 SMA types (P <.05).We linked these alterations to downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator 1α, the transcriptional activators nuclear respiratory factor 1 and nuclear respiratory factor 2, mitochondrial transcription factor A, and their downstream targets, implying depression of the entire mitochondrial biogenesis. Results of Western blot analysis confirmed the reduced levels of the respiratory chain subunits that included mitochondrially encoded COX1 (47.5%; P =.004), COX2 (32.4%; P <.001), COX4 (26.6%; P <.001), and succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit A (65.8%; P =.03) as well as the structural outer membrane mitochondrial porin (33.1%; P <.001). Conversely, the levels of expression of 3 myogenic regulatory factors-muscle-specificmyogenic factor 5, myoblast determination 1, and myogenin-were higher in muscles from patients with SMA compared with muscles from age-matched controls (P <.05). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Our results strongly support the conclusion that an altered regulation of myogenesis and a downregulated mitochondrial biogenesis contribute to pathologic change in the muscle of patients with SMA. Therapeutic strategies should aim at counteracting these changes.


Di Blasi C.,Neuromuscular Diseases and Neuroimmunology Unit | Blasevich F.,Neuromuscular Diseases and Neuroimmunology Unit | Bellafiore E.,Neuromuscular Diseases and Neuroimmunology Unit | Mottarelli E.,Neuromuscular Diseases and Neuroimmunology Unit | And 6 more authors.
Neuromuscular Disorders | Year: 2010

We report on a patient with muscle pain not associated with muscle weakness. Microscopic examination of the muscle biopsy revealed rod-like cytoplasmic bodies in many fast fibres. By electron microscopy these had a crystalloid structure identical to the hexagonally cross-linked caveolin 3-positive tubular arrays, previously described in patients with similarly benign myopathy. We found that these inclusions were positive for calsequestrin and for the calsequestrin-binding protein junctin, as well as for caveolin 3. However, the genes coding for these proteins were not mutated. For diagnostic purposes calsequestrin and caveolin 3 positivity should be checked when rods are encountered in muscle biopsy for mild myopathy. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

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