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Port Adelaide, Australia

Barnett C.P.,South Australian Clinical Genetics Service | Mencel J.J.,South Australian Clinical Genetics Service | Gecz J.,Neurogenetics Program | Gecz J.,University of Adelaide | And 5 more authors.
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A | Year: 2012

Mutations in the NK2 homeobox 1 gene (NKX2-1) cause a rare syndrome known as choreoathetosis, congenital hypothyroidism, and neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (OMIM 610978). Here we present the first reported patient with this condition caused by a 14q13.3 deletion which is adjacent to but does not interrupt NKX2-1, and review the literature on this condition. The infant presented at 23 months with a history of developmental delay, hyperkinesia, recurrent respiratory infections, neonatal respiratory distress, and hypothyroidism. Choreiform movements and delayed motor milestones were first noted at 6-8 months of age. TSH levels had been consistently elevated from 8 months of age. The clinical presentation was suggestive of an NKX2-1 mutation. Sequencing of all exons and splice site junctions of NKX2-1 was performed but was normal. Array CGH was then performed and a 3.29Mb interstitial deletion at 14q13.1-q13.3 was detected. The distal region of loss of the deletion disrupted the surfactant associated 3 (SFTA3) gene but did disrupt NKX2-1. Findings were confirmed on high resolution SNP array and multiplex semiquanitative PCR. NKX2-1 encodes transcriptional factors involved in the developmental pathways for thyroid, lung, and brain. We hypothesize that the region centromeric to NKX2-1 is important for the normal functioning of this gene and when interrupted produces a phenotype that is typical of the choreoathetosis, congenital hypothyroidism, and neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, as seen in our patient. We conclude that deletions at 14q13.3 adjacent to but not involving NKX2-1 can cause choreoathetosis, congenital hypothyroidism, and neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Afawi Z.,Tel Aviv University | Mandelstam S.,Brain Research Institute | Korczyn A.D.,Tel Aviv University | Kivity S.,Epilepsy Unit | And 8 more authors.
Epilepsy Research | Year: 2013

We describe the clinical and radiological features of a family with a homozygous mutation in TBC1D24. The phenotype comprised onset of focal seizures at 2 months with prominent eye-blinking, facial and limb jerking with an oral sensory aura. These were controllable with medication but persisted into adult life. Associated features were mild to moderate intellectual disability and cerebellar features. MRI showed subtle cortical thickening with cerebellar atrophy and high signal confined to the ansiform lobule. The disorder is allelic with familial infantile myoclonic epilepsy, where intellect and neurologic examination are normal, highlighting the phenotypic variation with mutations of TBC1D24. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Dibbens L.M.,University of South Australia | De Vries B.,Leiden University | Donatello S.,Free University of Colombia | Heron S.E.,University of South Australia | And 33 more authors.
Nature Genetics | Year: 2013

The majority of epilepsies are focal in origin, with seizures emanating from one brain region. Although focal epilepsies often arise from structural brain lesions, many affected individuals have normal brain imaging. The etiology is unknown in the majority of individuals, although genetic factors are increasingly recognized. Autosomal dominant familial focal epilepsy with variable foci (FFEVF) is notable because family members have seizures originating from different cortical regions. Using exome sequencing, we detected DEPDC5 mutations in two affected families. We subsequently identified mutations in five of six additional published large families with FFEVF. Study of families with focal epilepsy that were too small for conventional clinical diagnosis with FFEVF identified DEPDC5 mutations in approximately 12% of families (10/82). This high frequency establishes DEPDC5 mutations as a common cause of familial focal epilepsies. Shared homology with G protein signaling molecules and localization in human neurons suggest a role of DEPDC5 in neuronal signal transduction. © 2013 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Heron S.E.,University of South Australia | Grinton B.E.,University of Melbourne | Afawi Z.,Tel Aviv University | Zuberi S.M.,Paediatric Neurosciences Research Group | And 19 more authors.
American Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2012

Benign familial infantile epilepsy (BFIE) is a self-limited seizure disorder that occurs in infancy and has autosomal-dominant inheritance. We have identified heterozygous mutations in PRRT2, which encodes proline-rich transmembrane protein 2, in 14 of 17 families (82%) affected by BFIE, indicating that PRRT2 mutations are the most frequent cause of this disorder. We also report PRRT2 mutations in five of six (83%) families affected by infantile convulsions and choreoathetosis (ICCA) syndrome, a familial syndrome in which infantile seizures and an adolescent-onset movement disorder, paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis (PKC), co-occur. These findings show that mutations in PRRT2 cause both epilepsy and a movement disorder. Furthermore, PRRT2 mutations elicit pleiotropy in terms of both age of expression (infancy versus later childhood) and anatomical substrate (cortex versus basal ganglia). © 2012 The American Society of Human Genetics. Source

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