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RALEIGH, NC, United States

Park K.D.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Park K.D.,Korea Institute of Science and Technology | Yang X.-F.,University of Arizona | Dustrude E.T.,Paul and Carole Stark Neurosciences Research Institute | And 6 more authors.
ACS Chemical Neuroscience

The functionalized amino acid, lacosamide ((R)-2), and the α-aminoamide, safinamide ((S)-3), are neurological agents that have been extensively investigated and have displayed potent anticonvulsant activities in seizure models. Both compounds have been reported to modulate voltage-gated sodium channel activity. We have prepared a series of chimeric compounds, (R)-7-(R)-10, by merging key structural units in these two clinical agents, and then compared their activities with (R)-2 and (S)-3. Compounds were assessed for their ability to alter sodium channel kinetics for inactivation, frequency (use)-dependence, and steady-state activation and fast inactivation. We report that chimeric compounds (R)-7-(R)-10 in catecholamine A-differentiated (CAD) cells and embryonic rat cortical neurons robustly enhanced sodium channel inactivation at concentrations far lower than those required for (R)-2 and (S)-3, and that (R)-9 and (R)-10, unlike (R)-2 and (S)-3, produce sodium channel frequency (use)-dependence at low micromolar concentrations. We further show that (R)-7-(R)-10 displayed excellent anticonvulsant activities and pain-attenuating properties in the animal formalin model. Of these compounds, only (R)-7 reversed mechanical hypersensitivity in the tibial-nerve injury model for neuropathic pain in rats. © 2014 American Chemical Society. Source

Torregrosa R.,Neurogate Therapeutics, Inc. | Yang X.-F.,University of Arizona | Dustrude E.T.,Indiana University | Cummins T.R.,Indiana University | And 3 more authors.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry

Six novel 3″-substituted (R)-N-(phenoxybenzyl) 2-N-acetamido-3-methoxypropionamides were prepared and then assessed using whole-cell, patch-clamp electrophysiology for their anticonvulsant activities in animal seizure models and for their sodium channel activities. We found compounds with various substituents at the terminal aromatic ring that had excellent anticonvulsant activity. Of these compounds, (R)-N-4′-((3″-chloro)phenoxy)benzyl 2-N-acetamido-3-methoxypropionamide ((R)-5) and (R)-N-4′-((3″-trifluoromethoxy)phenoxy)benzyl 2-N-acetamido-3-methoxypropionamide ((R)-9) exhibited high protective indices (PI = TD50/ED50) comparable with many antiseizure drugs when tested in the maximal electroshock seizure test to mice (intraperitoneally) and rats (intraperitoneally, orally). Most compounds potently transitioned sodium channels to the slow-inactivated state when evaluated in rat embryonic cortical neurons. Treating HEK293 recombinant cells that expressed hNaV1.1, rNaV1.3, hNaV1.5, or hNaV1.7 with (R)-9 recapitulated the high levels of sodium channel slow inactivation. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Torregrosa R.,Neurogate Therapeutics, Inc. | Yang X.-F.,University of Arizona | Dustrude E.T.,Paul and Carole Stark Neurosciences Research Institute | Wang Y.,University of Arizona | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry

We prepared 13 derivatives of N-(biphenyl-4′-yl)methyl (R)-2-acetamido-3-methoxypropionamide that differed in type and placement of a R-substituent in the terminal aryl unit. We demonstrated that the R-substituent impacted the compound's whole animal and cellular pharmacological activities. In rodents, select compounds exhibited excellent anticonvulsant activities and protective indices (PI = TD50/ED50) that compared favorably with clinical antiseizure drugs. Compounds with a polar, aprotic R-substituent potently promoted Na+ channel slow inactivation and displayed frequency (use) inhibition of Na+ currents at low micromolar concentrations. The possible advantage of affecting these two pathways to decrease neurological hyperexcitability is discussed. © 2014 American Chemical Society. Source

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