Neuroepidemiology Unit

Hannover, Germany

Neuroepidemiology Unit

Hannover, Germany
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Korzeniewski S.J.,Hutzel Womens Hospital | Korzeniewski S.J.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Korzeniewski S.J.,Wayne State University | Soto-Rivera C.L.,Harvard University | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2014

Background: We sought to disentangle the contributions of hyperthyrotropinemia (an indicator of thyroid dysfunction) (HTT) and intermittent or sustained systemic inflammation (ISSI) to structural and functional indicators of brain damage. Methods: We measured the concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) on day 14 and of 25 inflammation-related proteins in blood collected during the first 2 postnatal weeks from 786 infants born before the 28th week of gestation who were not considered to have hypothyroidism. We defined hyperthyrotropinemia (HTT) as a TSH concentration in the highest quartile for gestational age on postnatal day 14 and ISSI was defined as a concentration in the top quartile for gestational age of a specific inflammation-related protein on 2 separate days a week apart during the first 2 postnatal weeks. We first assessed the risk of brain damage indicators by comparing 1) neonates who had HTT to those without (regardless of ISSI) and 2) neonates with HTT only, ISSI only, or HTT+ISSI to those who were exposed to neither HTT nor ISSI. Results: In univariable models that compared those with HTT to those without, HTT was not significantly associated with any indicator of brain damage. In models that compared HTT only, ISSI only, and HTT+ISSI to those with neither, children with ISSI only or with HTT+ISSI were at significantly higher risk of ventriculomegaly [odds ratios (ORs) 2-6], whereas those with HTT only were at significantly reduced risk of a hypoechoic lesion (ORs 0.2-0.4). Children with HTT only had a higher risk of quadriparesis and those with ISSI alone had a higher risk of hemiparesis (ORs 1.6-2.4). Elevated risk of a very low mental development score was associated with both ISSI only and HTT+ISSI, whereas a very low motor development score and microcephaly were associated with HTT+ISSI. Conclusions: The association of HTT with increased or decreased risk of indicators of brain damage depends on the presence or absence of ISSI. © by De Gruyter 2014.

Steven J.K.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Steven J.K.,Wayne State University | Steven J.K.,Michigan State University | Elizabeth A.,Harvard University | And 11 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Background We sought to determine, in very preterm infants, whether elevated perinatal erythropoietin (EPO) concentrations are associated with increased risks of indicators of brain damage, and whether this risk differs by the co-occurrence or absence of intermittent or sustained systemic inflammation (ISSI). Methods Protein concentrations were measured in blood collected from 786 infants born before the 28th week of gestation. EPO was measured on postnatal day 14, and 25 inflammationrelated proteins were measured weekly during the first 2 postnatal weeks. We defined ISSI as a concentration in the top quartile of each of 25 inflammation-related proteins on two separate days a week apart. Hypererythropoietinemia (hyperEPO) was defined as the highest quartile for gestational age on postnatal day 14. Using logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression models, we compared risks of brain damage among neonates with hyperEPO only, ISSI only, and hyperEPO+ISSI, to those who had neither hyperEPO nor ISSI, adjusting for gestational age. Results Newborns with hyperEPO, regardless of ISSI, were more than twice as likely as those without to have very low (< 55) Mental (OR 2.3; 95% CI 1.5-3.5) and/or Psychomotor (OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.6-3.7) Development Indices (MDI, PDI), and microcephaly at age two years (OR 2.4; 95%CI 1.5-3.8). Newborns with both hyperEPO and ISSI had significantly increased risks of ventriculomegaly, hemiparetic cerebral palsy, microcephaly, and MDI and PDI < 55 (ORs ranged from 2.2-6.3), but not hypoechoic lesions or other forms of cerebral palsy, relative to newborns with neither hyperEPO nor ISSI. Conclusion hyperEPO, regardless of ISSI, is associated with elevated risks of very low MDI and PDI, and microcephaly, but not with any form of cerebral palsy. Children with both hyperEPO and ISSI are at higher risk than others of very low MDI and PDI, ventriculomegaly, hemiparetic cerebral palsy, and microcephaly. © 2015 Korzeniewski et al.

Milo R.,Barzilai Medical Center | Kahana E.,Barzilai Medical Center | Kahana E.,Neuroepidemiology Unit
Autoimmunity Reviews | Year: 2010

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic immune-mediated demyelinating disease of the central nervous system characterized by relapses and remissions. The risk of acquiring this complex disease is associated with exposure to environmental factors in genetically susceptible individuals. The epidemiology of MS has been extensively studied. We review the geographic epidemiology of the disease, the influence of immigration, age at immigration, clustering and epidemics. Various presumptive risk factors are discussed such as ultraviolet radiation, vitamin D, Epstein-Barr virus and infectious mononucleosis, other infectious agents and non-infectious factors. Two different hypotheses, the hygiene hypothesis and the prevalence hypothesis, were proposed to explain these environmental risk factors for MS. The epidemiological data, combined with pathological and immunological data, may contribute to the debate whether MS is an autoimmune disease, a latent or persistent viral disease, or a neurodegenerative disease. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Holm M.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Holm M.,Tufts University | Msall M.E.,University of Chicago | Skranes J.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | And 4 more authors.
European Journal of Paediatric Neurology | Year: 2015

Aim We sought to identify the antecedents and correlates of visual field deficits (VFDs) at age 2 years among infants born before the 28th week of gestation.Methods The visual fields of 1023 infants were assessed by confrontation at age 2 years. We compared the ante-and postnatal characteristics and exposures of the 65 infants with a VFD to their peers who did not have a VFD. We used time-oriented logistic regression risk models to assess the associations of potential antecedents and correlates with a VFD. © 2014 European Paediatric Neurology Society.Results In the final regression model, VFD was associated with maternal consumption of aspirin during the current pregnancy, recurring/persistent acidemia during the first 3 postnatal days, cerebral ventriculomegaly seen on neonatal ultrasound, prethreshold retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), and supplemental oxygen and ventilator dependence at 36 weeks post-menstrual age. Birth before the 27th week was also associated with increased risk, but its significance was diminished by the addition of postnatal variables.Conclusion In this sample of extremely preterm born infants, antenatal as well as early and late postnatal characteristics and exposures are associated with an increased risk of having a VFD. Our study adds to our knowledge about the complex etiology of visual deficits of prematurity, and supports a multifactorial cause of these deficits.

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