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Samango-Sprouse C.,George Washington University | Samango-Sprouse C.,Neurodevelopmental Diagnostic Center for Young Children | Banjevic M.,Natera | Ryan A.,Natera | And 8 more authors.
Prenatal Diagnosis | Year: 2013

Objective: This study aimed to develop a single-nucleotide polymorphism-based and informatics-based non-invasive prenatal test that detects sex chromosome aneuploidies early in pregnancy. Methods: Sixteen aneuploid samples, including thirteen 45,X, two 47,XXY, and one 47,XYY, along with 185 euploid controls, were analyzed. Cell-free DNA was isolated from maternal plasma, amplified in a single multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay that targeted 19488 polymorphic loci covering chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, and Y, and sequenced. Sequencing results were analyzed using a Bayesian-based maximum likelihood statistical method to determine copy number of interrogated chromosomes, calculating sample-specific accuracies. Results: Of the samples that passed a stringent quality control metric (93%), the algorithm correctly identified copy number at all five chromosomes in all but one of the 187 samples, for 934/935 correct calls as early as 9.4weeks of gestation. We detected 45,X with 91.7% sensitivity (CI: 61.5-99.8%) and 100% specificity (CI: 97.9-100%), and 47,XXY and 47,XYY. The average calculated accuracy was 99.78%. Conclusion: This method non-invasively detected 45,X, 47,XXY, and 47,XYY fetuses from cell-free DNA isolated from maternal plasma with high calculated accuracies and thus offers a non-invasive method with the potential to function as a routine screen allowing for early prenatal detection of rarely diagnosed yet commonly occurring sex aneuploidies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Sprouse C.,University of Pittsburgh | Tosi L.,George Washington University | Stapleton E.,University of Virginia | Gropman A.L.,George Washington University | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics | Year: 2013

49, XXXXY is a rare aneuploidy and variant of Klinefelter syndrome, occurring in 1 per 80,000-100,000 live births. We present a cohort of 40 affected males, focusing on musculoskeletal problems. Subjects were participants in an annual 49er family support group meeting. Children were examined in a multidisciplinary clinic by a pediatric neurologist and geneticist, a pediatric orthopedist, a neurodevelopmentalist, and two physical therapists. The patient data were collected from this clinic from 2004 to 2012. All patients were required to have karyotypes that confirmed the presence of XXXXY. There was a high prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders, particularly hypotonia (34 patients [85%]), radioulnar synostosis (30 [75%]), pes planus (26 [65%]), asymmetric hip rotation (27 [67.5%]), and clinodactyly (24 [60%]). Other, less common lower-extremity disorders, included, 5 patients (12.5%) with unilateral club foot, 5 boys (12.5%) with pes cavus, 10 patients (25%) genu valgum and 2 children with genu varus (5%). To our knowledge, this is the first large cohort of boys with 49, XXXXY that focuses on musculoskeletal disorders. There was an increased incidence of hypotonia, clubfoot, avascular necrosis of the femoral head, radioulnar synostosis, and pes planus compared to the normative population. Boys with 49, XXXXY would benefit from multidisciplinary evaluations, particularly from pediatric orthopedists, physical therapists, neurologists, and geneticists for appropriate medical care. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Samango-Sprouse C.A.,George Washington University | Stapleton E.,University of Virginia | Sadeghin T.,Neurodevelopmental Diagnostic Center for Young Children | Gropman A.L.,George Washington University
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics | Year: 2013

The behavioral phenotype of children with XXY has not been extensively studied until recently and this research has been confounded by insufficient study populations and ascertainment biases. The aim of the study was to expand the behavioral aspect of the XXY phenotype as well as investigate the role of existing familial learning disabilities (FLD) on behavioral problems. Behavioral phenotype of XXY includes social anxiety, ADHD, social communication, and atypical peer interactions. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), and Gilliam Autism Rating Scale (GARS) were completed by the parents of 54 boys with XXY who had not received hormonal replacement prior to participation. Our findings suggest fewer behavioral deficits and lower severity in the general 47,XXY population than previously published and found significant differences between the groups with a positive FLD on the behavioral assessments. Findings demonstrate that boys with FLD exhibit an increased incidence and severity of behavioral problems. Our study expands on the findings of Samango-Sprouse et al. [Samango-Sprouse et al. (2012b) J Intellect Disabil Res] and the significant influence that FLD has on not only neurodevelopment, but also behavioral deficits. Our study suggests that part of the XXY phenotypic profile may be modulated by FLD. Further study is underway to examine the interaction between the many salient factors effecting behavioral and neurodevelopmental progression in XXY and variant forms. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Gropman A.L.,Childrens National Medical Center | Gropman A.L.,George Washington University | Rogol A.,University of Virginia | Rogol A.,Indiana University | And 9 more authors.
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A | Year: 2010

49, XXXXY is a rare chromosomal syndrome due to double nondisjunction of the replicating X chromosome. Considered a severe variant of XXY or Klinefelter syndrome, boys with this chromosome constitution are assumed to have severe mental retardation (MR) in addition to craniofacial, genital, endocrine, and heart abnormalities. Here, we present a multidisciplinary analysis including the clinical and neurobehavioral aspects of this condition in 20 boys with 49, XXXXY who share a common phenotype and neurobehavioral profile. The phenotypic presentation of the boys with 49, XXXXY shares some characteristics with 47, XXY, but there are also other unique and distinctive features. Previously unappreciated intact nonverbal skills are evident in conjunction with moderate to severe developmental dyspraxia. Variability in clinical and cognitive functioning may reflect skewed X inactivation, mosaicism, or other factors that warrant further investigation. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Source

Samango-Sprouse C.A.,George Washington University | Samango-Sprouse C.A.,Neurodevelopmental Diagnostic Center for Young Children | Stapleton E.J.,The Focus Foundation | Mitchell F.L.,Childrens National Medical Center | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A | Year: 2014

The aim of the study was to examine the impact of familial learning disabilities (FLD) on the phenotypic profile of 47, XXY males and the possibility that 47, XXY males with more severe cognitive deficits may be partially a consequence of familial dyslexia/reading disorder. We wondered if FLD could pose an additional risk for complex neurodevelopmental differences in 47, XXY. The neurodevelopmental profile of males with 47, XXY has been characterized by developmental dyspraxia, language-based learning disorders, executive dysfunction, reading, and attentional deficits. One hundred eighteen boys with 47, XXY diagnosed prenatally who did not receive early hormonal treatment were divided into two groups based on positive histories of FLD and given comprehensive neurodevelopmental evaluations between 36 and 108 months. The assessments included intelligence (nonverbal and verbal), neuromotor (fine and gross), speech, and language. The group with FLD performed significantly lower in multiple neurodevelopmental domains of the Wechsler of VIQ P=0.015, FSIQ P=0.0005, the Brief IQ P=0.0525 of the Leiter, in Auditory Comprehension P=0.0505, Expressive Communication P=0.0055, and neuromotor domains of Manual Coordination P=0.0032, Fine Motor Control P=0.0378, and Motor Coordination P=0.008. Our study demonstrates the influence of FLD on neurodevelopment and expands the phenotypic profile of 47, XXY, suggesting some neurodevelopmental variability is attributable to other factors than the additional X. FLD may increase the vulnerability of the 47, XXY children and anticipatory guidance should be provided to families. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

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