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Ramanathan L.,University of California at Los Angeles | Ramanathan L.,Neurobiology Research | Siegel J.M.,University of California at Los Angeles | Siegel J.M.,Neurobiology Research
Free Radical Biology and Medicine | Year: 2011

We previously showed that total sleep deprivation increased antioxidant responses in several rat brain regions. We also reported that chronic hypoxia enhanced antioxidant responses and increased oxidative stress in rat cerebellum and pons, relative to normoxic conditions. In the current study, we examined the interaction between these two parameters (sleep and hypoxia). We exposed rats to total sleep deprivation under sustained hypoxia (SDSH) and compared changes in antioxidant responses and oxidative stress markers in the neocortex, hippocampus, brainstem, and cerebellum to those in control animals left undisturbed under either sustained hypoxia (UCSH) or normoxia (UCN). We measured changes in total nitrite levels as an indicator of nitric oxide (NO) production, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and total glutathione (GSHt) levels as markers of antioxidant responses, and levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and protein carbonyls as signs of lipid and protein oxidation products, respectively. We found that acute (6 h) SDSH increased NO production in the hippocampus and increased GSHt levels in the neocortex, brainstem, and cerebellum while decreasing hippocampal lipid oxidation. Additionally, we observed increased hexokinase activity in the neocortex of SDSH rats compared to UCSH rats, suggesting that elevated glucose metabolism may be one potential source of the enhanced free radicals produced in this brain region. We conclude that short-term insomnia under hypoxia may serve as an adaptive response to prevent oxidative stress. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Blouin A.M.,University of California at Los Angeles | Blouin A.M.,Johns Hopkins University | Fried I.,University of California at Los Angeles | Wilson C.L.,University of California at Los Angeles | And 9 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2013

The neurochemical changes underlying human emotions and social behaviour are largely unknown. Here we report on the changes in the levels of two hypothalamic neuropeptides, hypocretin-1 and melanin-concentrating hormone, measured in the human amygdala. We show that hypocretin-1 levels are maximal during positive emotion, social interaction and anger, behaviours that induce cataplexy in human narcoleptics. In contrast, melanin-concentrating hormone levels are minimal during social interaction, but are increased after eating. Both peptides are at minimal levels during periods of postoperative pain despite high levels of arousal. Melanin-concentrating hormone levels increase at sleep onset, consistent with a role in sleep induction, whereas hypocretin-1 levels increase at wake onset, consistent with a role in wake induction. Levels of these two peptides in humans are not simply linked to arousal, but rather to specific emotions and state transitions. Other arousal systems may be similarly emotionally specialized. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

McGregor R.,Neurobiology Research | McGregor R.,University of California at Los Angeles | Wu M.-F.,Neurobiology Research | Wu M.-F.,University of California at Los Angeles | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2011

Hypocretin (Hcrt) cell loss is responsible for narcolepsy, but Hcrt's role in normal behavior is unclear.Wefound that Hcrt knock-out mice were unable to work for food or water reward during the light phase. However, they were unimpaired relative to wild-type (WT) mice when working for reward during the dark phase or when working to avoid shock in the light or dark phase. InWTmice, expression of Fos in Hcrt neurons occurs only in the light phase when working for positive reinforcement. Expression was seen throughout the mediolateral extent of the Hcrt field. Fos was not expressed when expected or unexpected unearned rewards were presented, when working to avoid negative reinforcement, or when given or expecting shock, even though these conditions elicit maximal electroencephalogram (EEG) arousal. Fos was not expressed in the light phase when light was removed. This may explain the lack of light-induced arousal in narcoleptics and its presence in normal individuals. This is the first demonstration of such specificity of arousal system function and has implications for understanding the motivational and circadian consequences of arousal system dysfunction. The current results also indicate that comparable and complementary specificities must exist in other arousal systems. © 2011 the authors. Source

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