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Camchong J.,Neurobehavioral Research, Inc. | Fein G.,Neurobehavioral Research, Inc. | Fein G.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research | Year: 2013

Background: We previously reported that when compared with controls, long-term abstinent alcoholics (LTAA) have increased resting-state synchrony (RSS) of the inhibitory control network and reduced synchrony of the appetitive drive network, and hypothesized that these levels of synchrony are adaptive and support the behavioral changes required to maintain abstinence. In this study, we investigate whether these RSS patterns can be identified in short-term abstinent alcoholics (STAA). Methods: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected from 27 STAA, 23 LTAA, and 23 nonsubstance abusing controls (NSAC). We examined baseline RSS using seed-based measures. Results: We found ordered RSS effects from NSAC to STAA and then to LTAA within both the appetitive drive and executive control networks: increasing RSS of the executive control network and decreasing RSS of the reward processing network. Finally, we found significant correlations between strength of RSS in these networks and (i) cognitive flexibility, and (ii) current antisocial behavior. Conclusions: Findings are consistent with an adaptive progression of RSS from short- to long-term abstinence, so that, compared with normal controls, the synchrony (i) within the reward network progressively decreases, and (ii) within the executive control network progressively increases. © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism. Source


Fein G.,Neurobehavioral Research, Inc. | Fein G.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Greenstein D.,Neurobehavioral Research, Inc.
Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research | Year: 2013

Background: Disturbed gait and balance are common and important sequelae of chronic alcoholism. We present longitudinal data on recovery of gait and balance in alcoholics 6 to 15 weeks abstinent at baseline assessment through follow-up assessment 4 to 16 months after baseline. Methods: We performed a follow-up assessment (4 to 16 months after baseline) of gait and balance functioning in 37 short-term (6 to 15 weeks) abstinent alcoholics (STAA), 25 of whom remained abstinent through the follow-up period. Fourteen non-substance-abusing controls (NSAC) were also brought back for a follow-up assessment to examine practice effects. Results: Alcoholics showed gait and balance impairment versus controls at both the initial and follow-up assessments, showing no improvement in gait and balance measures over the follow-up period. At follow-up, NSAC showed improvement on the Walk on Floor eyes closed measure, possibly representing a practice effect not present in STAA. Conclusions: This study finds no improvement from about 10 weeks to about 1 year of abstinence in chronic alcoholics. The study is silent with regard to gait and balance recovery that occurs prior to 10 weeks abstinence, and after the first year of abstinence. Other studies suggest some recovery of gait and balance prior to 10 weeks abstinence, and our recent cross-sectional study (Smith and Fein, 2011, Alcohol Clin Exp Res 35:2184-2192) suggests that significant additional recovery occurs in the ensuing years. © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism. Source


Fein G.,Neurobehavioral Research, Inc. | Fein G.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research | Year: 2013

Background: A high prevalence of comorbid mood and anxiety disorders has been demonstrated in alcoholics. We examined lifetime and current mood and anxiety diagnoses and symptoms in long-term (mean 7.6 years; n = 110) and short-term (mean 10.1 weeks; n = 101) abstinent alcoholics (LTAA and STAA) and nonsubstance abusing controls (NSAC; n = 82). All alcoholics met DSM-IV lifetime alcohol dependence criteria. About half of each alcoholic group had lifetime drug dependence. Methods: Alcohol use was assessed using timeline follow-back methodology, and drug and alcohol use disorders were diagnosed using the AUDADIS-IV. Lifetime and current mood and anxiety disorder diagnoses and symptom counts were gathered using the computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Results: Over 60% of STAA and LTAA had a lifetime internalizing diagnosis versus about 15% of NSAC, with no difference between STAA and LTAA. The group effect on lifetime diagnoses was independent of comorbid drug dependence or gender and was of comparable size for mood and anxiety disorders. Current diagnoses showed a similar pattern, except that STAA had more current mood diagnoses than LTAA. Excluding individuals with lifetime internalizing diagnoses, alcoholics still had more mood and anxiety symptoms than controls. Conclusions: (i) The presence of a lifetime mood or anxiety diagnosis or of a current anxiety diagnosis did not differ between STAA and LTAA, suggesting that such diagnoses do not impact one's ability to achieve or maintain abstinence. (ii) Prevalence of mood and anxiety diagnoses was unaffected by presence of a comorbid substance use disorder, and (iii) excluding individuals with a mood or anxiety diagnosis does not eliminate mood and anxiety symptom count differences between groups. © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism. Source


Hamm J.P.,University of Georgia | Gilmore C.S.,Neurobehavioral Research, Inc. | Clementz B.A.,University of Georgia
Schizophrenia Research | Year: 2012

Individuals with schizophrenia (SZ) have deviations in auditory perception perhaps attributable to altered neural oscillatory response properties in thalamo-cortical and/or local cortico-cortical circuits. Previous EEG studies of auditory steady-state responses (aSSRs; a measure of sustained neuronal entrainment to repetitive stimulation) in SZ have indicated attenuated gamma range (≈ 40. Hz) neural entrainment. Stimuli in most such studies have been relatively brief (500-1000. ms) trains of 1. ms clicks or amplitude modulated pure tones (1000. Hz) with short, fixed interstimulus intervals (200-1000. ms). The current study used extended (1500. ms), more aurally dense broadband stimuli (500-4000. Hz noise; previously demonstrated to elicit larger aSSRs) with longer, variable interstimulus intervals (2700-3300. ms). Dense array EEG (256 sensor) was collected while 17 SZ and 16 healthy subjects passively listed to stimuli modulated at 15 different frequencies spanning beta and gamma ranges (16-44. Hz in 2. Hz steps). Results indicate that SZ have augmented aSSRs that were most extreme in the gamma range. Results also constructively replicate previous findings of attenuated low frequency auditory evoked responses (2-8. Hz) in SZ. These findings (i) highlight differential characteristics of low versus high frequency and induced versus entrained oscillatory auditory responses in both SZ and healthy stimulus processing, (ii) provide support for an NMDA-receptor hypofunction-based pharmacological model of SZ, and (iii) report a novel pattern of aSSR abnormalities suggesting that gamma band neural entrainment deviations among SZ may be more complex than previously supposed, including possibly being substantially influenced by physical stimulus properties. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source


Grant
Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 149.87K | Year: 2012

The goal of this project is for NRI and UCLA to develop a National Network on Drugged Driving (NNODD) website. The website will have an epidemiology component consisting of point prevalence and continuous monitoring data.

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