Krashin-Bichler I.,Neuro Ophthalmology Unit
Harefuah | Year: 2013
Erectile dysfunction medications such as sildenafil citrate (Viagra) or tadalafil (Cialis) are commonly prescribed worldwide. They are selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor and partial phosphodiesterase-6 inhibitors causing smooth muscle relaxation in the corpus cavernosum, allowing penile vasodilatation and erection in response to sexual stimuli. Over the years, there have been an increasing number of case reports concerning patients who developed ischemic optic neuropathy soon after the ingestion of these drugs. Although a cause and effect relationship between usage of the drugs and the development of ischemic optic neuropathy is difficult to prove, it is common nowadays to advise patients, especially those suffering from diabetes, hypertension, and ischemic heart disease, regarding the potential risk of visual loss due to ischemic optic neuropathy and treatment with erectile dysfunction drugs. Patients who were diagnosed with ischemic optic neuropathy soon after the ingestion of these erectile dysfunction drugs should be warned about a similar event in their fellow eye and should be advised regarding drug discontinuation.
Borruat F.-X.,Neuro Ophthalmology Unit
Current Opinion in Neurology | Year: 2013
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Oculopalatal tremor (OPT) is an acquired disorder resulting from the interruption of a specific brainstem circuitry, the dentato-rubro-olivary pathway or Guillain-Mollaret triangle. The recent literature on OPT and olivary hypertrophy was reviewed with specific interest regarding causes, diagnostic procedures, physiopathology and therapies. RECENT FINDINGS: OPT is associated with inferior olivary hypertrophy, and recent findings have provided a better understanding of its intimate mechanisms. A dual-mechanism model, combining an oscillator (inferior olive) and a modulator/amplifier (cerebellum), best explains the development of OPT. Electrotonic coupling and specific Ca channels contribute to oscillations of inferior olivary nucleus neurons in OPT. Improvement of visual symptoms can be achieved with oral gabapentin or memantine. SUMMARY: Both the neuronal circuitry and the physiopathology of OPT are now better understood. This opens up an era of specific therapy for this rare cause of disabling oscillopsia. © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams &Wilkins.
Gallien P.,Pole MPR Saint Helier |
Gich J.,University of Girona |
Sanchez-Dalmau B.F.,Neuro Ophthalmology Unit |
Feneberg W.,Marianne Strauss Klinik Berg
European Neurology | Year: 2014
Background: Effective management of multisymptomatic chronic diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) requires a multimodal, interdisciplinary approach. At MS clinics, numerous healthcare specialties are coordinated to provide patients with quality clinical care for all aspects of their disease. Settings and resource availability may vary between countries. Four specific specialty services from different EU countries are examined in more detail.Summary: The multidisciplinary neurorehabilitation team in Rennes, France, provides specialized consultations (e.g. spasticity, urodynamic unit, devices), inpatient and outpatient intensive rehabilitation programs and therapeutic education. Management approaches are based on a patient's level of impairment as assessed by the Expanded Disability Status Scale. In Girona, Spain, neuropsychologists perform assessments as part of the neurological protocol for all patients with MS. Depending on the level of impairment and patients' characteristics (e.g. working or not working), cognitive deficits may be treated at home or at a neurorehabilitation center. In Barcelona, Spain, neuro-ophthalmologists are involved in the differential diagnosis and follow-up care of MS patients with visual disturbances; particular attention is given to patients' vision-related quality of life. Pain specialists at the Marianne Strauß Klinik in Berg, Germany, have developed a system for classifying MS pain syndromes and differentiating MS-related pain from non MS-related pain. Chronic pain management involves numerous disciplines and requires active engagement by patients in developing treatment plans.Key Messages: MS affects several body systems and patients invariably require specialized interdisciplinary support. Insight into services provided by various specialties and their fit within multidisciplinary care models at MS centers may facilitate the design or refinement of care models in other locations. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Shofty B.,Dana Childrens Hospital |
Ben-Sira L.,Pediatric Radiology Unit |
Constantini S.,Dana Childrens Hospital |
Freedman S.,Dana Childrens Hospital |
Kesler A.,Neuro Ophthalmology Unit
American Journal of Neuroradiology | Year: 2012
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: IIH is a disorder associated with increased intracranial pressure with no clinical, laboratory, or radiologic evidence of an intracranial space-occupying lesion. The aim of this study was to establish ONSD standards of healthy pediatric subjects and compare the normal measurements with those of patients with IIH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred fifteen MR imaging studies of children 4 months to 17 years of age were blinded and reviewed by a pediatric neuroradiologist. A total of 230 optic nerves were measured. Eighty-six MR imaging examinations were performed in apparently healthy subjects. This control group included subjects who underwent MR imaging for various reasons, and their MR imaging findings were interpreted as normal. Twenty-nine MR imaging examinations were performed in patients with documented IIH. The ONSD was measured 1 cm anterior to the optic foramina on an axial T2 sequence. For statistical analysis, both patients and controls were stratified into 4 age groups (I, 0-3 years; II, 3-6 years; III, 6-12 years; IV, 12-18 years). RESULTS: The mean ONSD of the control group in all age groups (I, 3.1 mm; II, 3.41 mm; III, 3.55 mm; IV, 3.56 mm) was significantly smaller than the mean ONSD of patients (I, 4.35 mm; II, 4.37 mm; III, 4.25 mm; IV, 4.69 mm). A positive correlation between age and ONSD (r = 0.414, P < .01) was found in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: According to our study, in pediatric patients with IIH, the ONSD is significantly larger than that in healthy controls regardless of age group and sex. This measurement might prove to be an auxiliary tool in the diagnosis of increased intracranial pressure in pediatric patients.
Szatmary G.,Neuro Ophthalmology Unit
Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports | Year: 2013
Neoplastic leptomeningeal disease (NLD), which encompasses both primary and secondary leptomeningeal tumors, has a devastating impact on the life of cancer patients. The present diagnostic technical armamentarium is insufficient for early diagnosis of NLD. However, NLD may present with subtle neuro-ophthalmic features at a time of relatively small tumor burden, which gives the provider first encountering these patients the window of opportunity for early diagnosis and consequently improved life expectancy and quality of life of these patients. Therefore, familiarity with early, often subtle neuro-ophthalmic features is an essential tool for diagnosing these patients prior to the development of fixed deficits, which usually portend a dismal prognosis. Future evolving laboratory and neuroimaging technologies are expected to advance our understanding of underlying pathophysiology and early detection of NLD. This paper provides an up-to-date review and synthesis of the current literature with focus on neuro-ophthalmic features and their underlying pathophysiology. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.