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Amsterdam-Zuidoost, Netherlands

Lin F.,Netherlands Cancer Institute | De Gooijer M.C.,Netherlands Cancer Institute | De Gooijer M.C.,Neuro oncology Research Group | Roig E.M.,Netherlands Cancer Institute | And 7 more authors.
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2014

Purpose: Little is known about the optimal clinical use of ABT-888 (veliparib) for treatment of glioblastoma. ABT-888 is a PARP inhibitor undergoing extensive clinical evaluation in glioblastoma, because it may synergize with the standard-of-care temozolomide (TMZ). We have elucidated important factors controlling ABT-888 efficacy in glioblastoma. Experimental Design: We used genetically engineered spontaneous glioblastoma mouse models and allograft models that were orthotopically transplanted into wild-type (WT) and Abcb1/Abcg2-deficient (KO) recipients. Results: ABT-888/TMZ is not efficacious against p53;p16Ink4a/p19Arf;K-Rasv12;LucR allografts in wild-type recipients, indicating inherent resistance. Abcb1/Abcg2 mediated efflux of ABT-888 at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) causes a 5-fold reduction of ABT-888 brain penetration (P 0.0001) that was fully reversible by elacridar. Efficacy studies in WT and KO recipients and/or concomitant elacridar demonstrate that Abcb1/ Abcg2 at the BBB and in tumor cells impair TMZ/ABT-888 combination treatment efficacy. Elacridar also markedly improved TMZ/ABT-888 combination treatment in the spontaneous p53;p16Ink4a/p19Arf;K-Rasv12; LucR glioblastoma model. Importantly, ABT-888 does enhance TMZ efficacy in Pten deficient glioblastoma allografts and spontaneous tumors, even in Abcb1/Abcg2 proficient wild-type mice. Loss of PTEN occurs frequently in glioblastoma (36%) and in silico analysis on patient with glioblastoma samples revealed that it is associated with a worse overall survival (310 days vs. 620 days, n = 117). Conclusions: The potential of ABT-888 in glioblastoma can best be demonstrated in patients with PTEN null tumors. Therefore, clinical trials with ABT-888 should evaluate these patients as a separate group. Importantly, inhibition of ABCB1 and ABCG2 (by elacridar) may improve the efficacy of TMZ/ABT-888 therapy in all glioblastoma patients. Clin Cancer Res. © 2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

Niers J.M.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Niers J.M.,Neuro oncology Research Group | Kerami M.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Kerami M.,Neuro oncology Research Group | And 4 more authors.
Molecular Therapy | Year: 2011

Noninvasive detection and in vivo imaging of apoptosis plays a critical role in the development of therapeutics in many different fields including cancer. We have developed an apoptosis biosensor by fusing green fluorescent protein (GFP) to the N-terminus of the naturally secreted Gaussia luciferase separated by a caspase-3 cleavage peptide consisting of aspartic acid (D), glutamic acid (E), valine (V), and aspartic acid (D) or DEVD. We showed that this fusion is retained in the cytoplasm of cells in an inactive form. Upon apoptosis, the DEVD peptide is cleaved in response to caspase-3 activation, freeing ssGluc, which can now enter the secretory pathway where it is folded properly and is released from the cells and can be detected in the conditioned medium in culture or in blood of live animals ex vivo over time. Because Gluc is secreted from cells via conventional pathway through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi and vesicles, we showed that the presence of Gluc in these compartments in response to apoptosis can be visualized in vivo using bioluminescence imaging. This reporter provides a valuable tool for imaging and real-time monitoring of apoptosis and is compatible with high-throughput functional screening application in cultured cells and animal models. © The American Society of Gene &Cell Therapy.

Niers J.M.,Molecular Therapeutics | Niers J.M.,Neuro oncology Research Group | Chen J.W.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Lewandrowski G.,Molecular Therapeutics | And 10 more authors.
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2012

We have developed a multifaceted, highly specific reporter for multimodal in vivo imaging and applied it for detection of brain tumors. A metabolically biotinylated, membrane-bound form of Gaussia luciferase was synthesized, termed mbGluc-biotin. We engineered glioma cells to express this reporter and showed that brain tumor formation can be temporally imaged by bioluminescence following systemic administration of coelenterazine. Brain tumors expressing this reporter had high sensitivity for detection by magnetic resonance and fluorescence tomographic imaging upon injection of streptavidin conjugated to magnetic nanoparticles or fluorophore, respectively. Moreover, single photon emission computed tomography showed enhanced imaging of these tumors upon injection with streptavidin complexed to 111In-DTPA-biotin. This work shows for the first time a single small reporter (∼40 kDa) which can be monitored with most available molecular imaging modalities and can be extended for single cell imaging using intravital microscopy, allowing real-time tracking of any cell expressing it in vivo. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Saydam O.,Neuroscience Progra | Saydam O.,Medical University of Vienna | Senol O.,Neuroscience Progra | Wurdinger T.,Neuroscience Progra | And 10 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2011

Micro RNAs (miRNA) negatively regulate protein-coding genes at the posttranscriptional level and are critical in tumorigenesis. Schwannomas develop from proliferation of dedifferentiated Schwann cells, which normally wrap nerve fibers to help support and insulate nerves. In this study, we carried out high-throughput miRNA expression profiling of human vestibular schwannomas by using an array representing 407 known miRNAs to explore the role of miRNAs in tumor growth. Twelve miRNAs were found to be significantly deregulated in tumor samples as compared with control nerve tissue, defining a schwannoma-typical signature. Among these miRNAs, we focused on miR-7, which was one of the most downregulated in these tumors and has several known oncogene targets, including mRNAs for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and p21-activated kinase 1 (Pak1). We found that overexpression of miR-7 inhibited schwannoma cell growth both in culture and in xenograft tumor models in vivo, which correlated with downregulation of these signaling pathways. Furthermore, we identified a novel direct target of miR-7, the mRNA for associated cdc42 kinase 1 (Ack1), with the expression levels of miR-7 and Ack1 being inversely correlated in human schwannoma samples. These results represent the first miRNA profiling of schwannomas and the first report of a tumor suppressor function for miR-7 in these tumors that is mediated by targeting the EGFR, Pak1, and Ack1 oncogenes. Our findings suggest miR-7 as a potential therapeutic molecule for schwannoma treatment, and they prompt clinical evaluation of drugs that can inhibit the EGFR, Pak1, and Ack1 signaling pathways to treat this tumor type. ©2010 AACR.

Jansen M.H.A.,niversity Medical Center | Kloet R.W.,VU University Amsterdam | van Vuurden D.G.,niversity Medical Center | van Vuurden D.G.,Neuro oncology Research Group | And 8 more authors.
EJNMMI Research | Year: 2014

Background: Positron emission tomography (PET) scanning with [18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose (18 F-FDG) is a useful diagnostic and prediction tool in brain tumors, but its value in childhood diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is still unclear. For interpretation of 18 F-FDG PET results in DIPG, uptake values of the normal pons of children of increasing ages are mandatory. The aim of this study was to determine 18 F-FDG standard uptake value ratios (SUVr) of the normal pons and to compare these to those of DIPG. Methods: We studied 36 subjects with a normal, non-affected pons (aged 5 to 23 years) and 6 patients with DIPG (aged 4 to 17 years) who underwent 18 F-FDG PET scanning. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was co-registered to define the regions of interest. SUVr and SUVrmax for the pons/cerebellum (SUVrp/c) and the pons/occipital lobe (SUVrp/o) were calculated. Independent-samples t tests and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare the mean SUVr and Pearson's test for correlations. Results: For the normal pons, mean SUVrp/c and SUVrp/o were 0.65 (±0.054) and 0.51 (±0.056), respectively. No significant correlations were found between the SUVr of the normal pons and sex, age, nor pontine volume. A modest but statistically significant correlation was found between SUVr and post-injection time acquisition timing. For DIPG, mean SUVrp/c and SUVrp/o were 0.74 (±0.20) and 0.65 (±0.30), respectively, while mean SUVrp(max)/c and SUVrp(max)/o were 1.95 (±0.48) and 1.81 (±0.20), respectively. Conclusion: The SUVr of the unaffected pons are strikingly constant between children, irrespective of sex and age, and can therefore be well used as a reference value for 18 F-FDG PET studies in DIPG. © 2014 Jansen et al.

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