Neural and Cognitive Engineering Group

Torrejón del Rey, Spain

Neural and Cognitive Engineering Group

Torrejón del Rey, Spain

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Bayon C.,Neural and Cognitive Engineering group | Ramirez O.,Neural and Cognitive Engineering group | Serrano J.I.,Neural and Cognitive Engineering group | Castillo M.D.D.,Neural and Cognitive Engineering group | And 7 more authors.
Robotics and Autonomous Systems | Year: 2017

The term Cerebral Palsy (CP) is a set of neurological disorders that appear in infancy or early childhood and permanently affect body movement and muscle coordination. The prevalence of CP is two–three per 1000 births. Emerging rehabilitation therapies through new strategies are needed to diminish the assistance required for these patients, promoting their functional capability. This paper presents a new robotic platform called CPWalker for gait rehabilitation in patients with CP, which allows them to start experiencing autonomous locomotion through novel robot-based therapies. The platform (smart walker + exoskeleton) is controlled by a multimodal interface that gives high versatility. The therapeutic approach, as well as the details of the interactions may be defined through this interface. CPWalker concept aims to promote the earlier incorporation of patients with CP to the rehabilitation treatment and increases the level of intensity and frequency of the exercises. This will enable the maintenance of therapeutic methods on a daily basis, with the intention of leading to significant improvements in the treatment outcomes. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Dideriksen J.L.,University of Gottingen | Dideriksen J.L.,University of Aalborg | Gallego J.A.,Neural and Cognitive Engineering Group | Gallego J.A.,Northwestern University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Neural Engineering | Year: 2015

Objective. Pathological tremors are symptomatic to several neurological disorders that are difficult to differentiate and the way by which central oscillatory networks entrain tremorogenic contractions is unknown. We considered the alternative hypotheses that tremor arises from one oscillator (at the tremor frequency) or, as suggested by recent findings from the superimposition of two separate inputs (at the tremor frequency and twice that frequency). Approach. Assuming one central oscillatory network we estimated analytically the relative amplitude of the harmonics of the tremor frequency in the motor neuron output for different temporal behaviors of the oscillator. Next, we analyzed the bias in the relative harmonics amplitude introduced by superimposing oscillations at twice the tremor frequency. These findings were validated using experimental measurements of wrist angular velocity and surface electromyography (EMG) from 22 patients (11 essential tremor, 11 Parkinson's disease). The ensemble motor unit action potential trains identified from the EMG represented the neural drive to the muscles. Main results. The analytical results showed that the relative power of the tremor harmonics in the analytical models of the neural drive was determined by the variability and duration of the tremor bursts and the presence of the second oscillator biased this power towards higher values. The experimental findings accurately matched the analytical model assuming one oscillator, indicating a negligible functional role of secondary oscillatory inputs. Furthermore, a significant difference in the relative power of harmonics in the neural drive was found across the patient groups, suggesting a diagnostic value of this measure (classification accuracy: 86%). This diagnostic power decreased substantially when estimated from limb acceleration or the EMG. Signficance. The results indicate that the neural drive in pathological tremor is compatible with one central network providing neural oscillations at the tremor frequency. Moreover, the regularity of this neural oscillation varies across tremor pathologies, making the relative amplitude of tremor harmonics a potential biomarker for diagnostic use. © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd.


Bayon C.,Neural and Cognitive Engineering Group | Lerma S.,Nino Jesus Hospital | Frizera A.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | Rocon E.,Neural and Cognitive Engineering Group
Proceedings of the IEEE RAS and EMBS International Conference on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics | Year: 2016

Cerebral Palsy (CP) is the most common cause of permanent serious physical disability in childhood. New strategies are needed to help promote, maintain, and rehabilitate the functional capacity of children with severe level of impairment. Overground walking rehabilitation devices appear as an alternative treatment for improving gait performance as well as training natural gait patterns among this population. The main objective of this work is to present a Human-Robot interaction strategy for overground rehabilitation to support novel robotic-based therapies for CP rehabilitation. This strategy is implemented in a new robotic platform named CPWalker. In our approach, legs' kinematics information obtained from a Laser Range Finder (LRF) sensor is used to detect the user's locomotion intentions and drive the robotic platform. The controller continuously adjust robot's velocity to human velocity achieving an adequate robot motion that assists the locomotion at each step. During a preliminary validation we observed that our strategy is able to fast adapt to patients and provide them a stable gait pattern at different speeds. As a result, the proposed controller is able to provide a natural interface between the robotic-platform and the patient. © 2016 IEEE.


Koutsou A.D.,Cajal Institute | Moreno J.C.,Cajal Institute | Del Ama A.J.,National Hospital for Spinal Cord Injury | Rocon E.,Neural and Cognitive Engineering Group | Pons J.L.,Cajal Institute
Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation | Year: 2016

Non-invasive neuroprosthetic (NP) technologies for movement compensation and rehabilitation remain with challenges for their clinical application. Two of those major challenges are selective activation of muscles and fatigue management. This review discusses how electrode arrays improve the efficiency and selectivity of functional electrical stimulation (FES) applied via transcutaneous electrodes. In this paper we review the principles and achievements during the last decade on techniques for artificial motor unit recruitment to improve the selective activation of muscles. We review the key factors affecting the outcome of muscle force production via multi-pad transcutaneous electrical stimulation and discuss how stimulation parameters can be set to optimize external activation of body segments. A detailed review of existing electrode array systems proposed by different research teams is also provided. Furthermore, a review of the targeted applications of existing electrode arrays for control of upper and lower limb NPs is provided. Eventually, last section demonstrates the potential of electrode arrays to overcome the major challenges of NPs for compensation and rehabilitation of patient-specific impairments. © 2016 The Author(s).


Bayon C.,Neural and Cognitive Engineering Group | Ramirez O.,Neural and Cognitive Engineering Group | Del Castillo M.D.,Neural and Cognitive Engineering Group | Serrano J.I.,Neural and Cognitive Engineering Group | And 8 more authors.
Proceedings - IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation | Year: 2016

Cerebral Palsy (CP) is a disorder of posture and movement due to an imperfection or lesion in the immature brain. CP is often associated to sensory deficits, cognition impairments, communication and motor disabilities, behaviour issues, seizure disorder, pain and secondary musculoskeletal problems. New strategies are needed to help to promote, maintain, and rehabilitate the functional capacity, and thereby diminish the dedication and assistance required and the economical demands that this condition represents for the patient, the caregivers and the whole society. This paper describes the conceptualization and development of the integrated CPWalker robotic platform to support novel therapies for CP rehabilitation. This platform (Smart Walker + exoskeleton) is controlled by a multimodal interface to establish the interaction of CP children with robot-based therapies. The objective of these therapies is to improve the physical skills of children with CP and similar disorders. CPWalker concept will promote the earlier incorporation of CP patients to the rehabilitation therapy and increase the level of intensity and frequency of the exercises according to the task, which will enable the maintenance of therapeutic methods in daily basis, with the intention to lead to significant improvements in the treatment outcome. © 2016 IEEE.


Ibanez J.,Cajal Institute | Serrano J.I.,Neural and Cognitive Engineering Group | del Castillo M.D.,Neural and Cognitive Engineering Group | Minguez J.,Aragon Institute of Engineering Research | Pons J.L.,Cajal Institute
Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing | Year: 2015

The extent to which the electroencephalographic activity allows the characterization of movements with the upper limb is an open question. This paper describes the design and validation of a classifier of upper-limb analytical movements based on electroencephalographic activity extracted from intervals preceding self-initiated movement tasks. Features selected for the classification are subject specific and associated with the movement tasks. Further tests are performed to reject the hypothesis that other information different from the task-related cortical activity is being used by the classifiers. Six healthy subjects were measured performing self-initiated upper-limb analytical movements. A Bayesian classifier was used to classify among seven different kinds of movements. Features considered covered the alpha and beta bands. A genetic algorithm was used to optimally select a subset of features for the classification. An average accuracy of 62.9 ± 7.5 % was reached, which was above the baseline level observed with the proposed methodology (30.2 ± 4.3 %). The study shows how the electroencephalography carries information about the type of analytical movement performed with the upper limb and how it can be decoded before the movement begins. In neurorehabilitation environments, this information could be used for monitoring and assisting purposes. © 2015, International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering.


PubMed | Cajal Institute, Neural and Cognitive Engineering group and National Hospital for Spinal Cord Injury
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of neuroengineering and rehabilitation | Year: 2016

Non-invasive neuroprosthetic (NP) technologies for movement compensation and rehabilitation remain with challenges for their clinical application. Two of those major challenges are selective activation of muscles and fatigue management. This review discusses how electrode arrays improve the efficiency and selectivity of functional electrical stimulation (FES) applied via transcutaneous electrodes. In this paper we review the principles and achievements during the last decade on techniques for artificial motor unit recruitment to improve the selective activation of muscles. We review the key factors affecting the outcome of muscle force production via multi-pad transcutaneous electrical stimulation and discuss how stimulation parameters can be set to optimize external activation of body segments. A detailed review of existing electrode array systems proposed by different research teams is also provided. Furthermore, a review of the targeted applications of existing electrode arrays for control of upper and lower limb NPs is provided. Eventually, last section demonstrates the potential of electrode arrays to overcome the major challenges of NPs for compensation and rehabilitation of patient-specific impairments.


PubMed | Institute Biomecanica Of Valencia, Neural and Cognitive Engineering group and Hospital Infantil Universitario Nino Jesus
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of neuroengineering and rehabilitation | Year: 2016

Cerebral Palsy (CP) is a disorder of posture and movement due to a defect in the immature brain. The use of robotic devices as alternative treatment to improve the gait function in patients with CP has increased. Nevertheless, current gait trainers are focused on controlling complete joint trajectories, avoiding postural control and the adaptation of the therapy to a specific patient. This paper presents the applicability of a new robotic platform called CPWalker in children with spastic diplegia.CPWalker consists of a smart walker with body weight and autonomous locomotion support and an exoskeleton for joint motion support. Likewise, CPWalker enables strategies to improve postural control during walking. The integrated robotic platform provides means for testing novel gait rehabilitation therapies in subjects with CP and similar motor disorders. Patient-tailored therapies were programmed in the device for its evaluation in three children with spastic diplegia for 5weeks. After ten sessions of personalized training with CPWalker, the children improved the mean velocity (51.9441.97%), cadence (29.1933.36%) and step length (26.4919.58%) in each leg. Post-3D gait assessments provided kinematic outcomes closer to normal values than Pre-3D assessments.The results show the potential of the novel robotic platform to serve as a rehabilitation tool. The autonomous locomotion and impedance control enhanced the childrens participation during therapies. Moreover, participants postural control was substantially improved, which indicates the usefulness of the approach based on promoting the patients trunk control while the locomotion therapy is executed. Although results are promising, further studies with bigger sample size are required.


Bayon C.,Neural and Cognitive Engineering Group | Ramirez O.,Neural and Cognitive Engineering Group | Velasco M.,Neural and Cognitive Engineering Group | Serrano J.I.,Neural and Cognitive Engineering Group | And 3 more authors.
Proceedings of the IEEE RAS and EMBS International Conference on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics | Year: 2016

Several robotic platforms were recently developed aimed at improving the locomotion capacity of people with gait impairment. Most of these gait trainers are limited to treadmill training, which is not a motivating condition for children with cerebral palsy (CP). This paper presents a pilot study done with two children with spastic CP, who trained with a new robotic platform called CPWalker during five weeks. This experimental device is a novel over ground prototype for gait rehabilitation with body weight support for children with CP. After rehabilitation training, both patients improved the mean velocity, cadence and step length. Moreover, the comparison between pre and post-kinematics analysis without the robot shows specific developments for each subject depending on the focus of the therapy (mainly trunk or hip flexion-extension). © 2016 IEEE.

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