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Cardiff, United Kingdom

Creavin S.T.,University of Bristol | Gallacher J.,Neuadd Meirionnydd | Bayer A.,University of Cardiff | Fish M.,Musgrove Park Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease | Year: 2012

We have examined whether metabolic syndrome is associated with intermediate risk of impaired cognition between people with and without diabetes. Men aged 45 to 59 years were identified from Caerphilly in South Wales, United Kingdom. Participation rate was 89% (41% of the original cohort) and 2,512 men were examined in phase one from July 1979 until September 1983. Follow-up examinations occurred at four intervals until 2004 when 1,225 men participated. Participants were categorized on the basis of their exposure to metabolic syndrome not diabetes (MSND) and diabetes (with or without metabolic syndrome) at each of the first three phases. Neuropsychological outcomes and clinical diagnosis of cognitive impairment not dementia (CIND) and dementia were assessed at phase five. The prevalence of MSND increased from 1% to 5% and for diabetes from 3% to 9% between phase one and phase three. 15% of participants had CIND and 8% dementia. People with diabetes, but not those with MSND, at phases one, two, or three had poorer cognition at phase five (adjusted β coefficient AH4 -4.3 95% CI -7.9, -0.7; phase two: -2.5 95% CI -4.7, -0.3; phase three: -2.3 95% CI -4.2, -0.5). The adjusted odds ratio (phase one) for diabetes and CIND was 4.0 (95% CI 1.4, 11.5) and dementia 0.61 (95% CI 0.07, 5.37). After adjustment, higher systolic blood pressure was the only component of the metabolic syndrome associated with worse cognitive outcomes. Diabetes in mid-life, but not MSND, is associated with impaired cognition and increased odds of CIND in later life. © 2012 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved. Source


Morgan G.S.,University of Bristol | Gallacher J.,Neuadd Meirionnydd | Bayer A.,University of Cardiff | Fish M.,Musgrove Park Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease | Year: 2012

Previous studies suggest that physical activity may be protective for dementia and cognitive impairment. We report findings comparing leisure-time and work-related physical activity from the Caerphilly Prospective study (CaPS) with dementia and cognitive impairment not dementia (CIND) after around 16 years of follow-up. We synthesized our results with a meta-analysis specifically testing if length of follow-up was associated with the size of any association. Age-adjusted models found no real association with dementia, and if anything increased risk for CIND (odds ratio (OR) highest versus lowest tertile 2.61, 95% CI 1.58 to 4.31), though this was attenuated after adjustment for other confounders (OR highest versus lowest tertile 1.38, 95% CI 0.78 to 2.44). There was no evidence that this differed by type (vascular versus non-vascular) of cognitive disease. Meta-analysis of other published effect estimates showed a protective effect of physical activity on cognitive impairment (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.85) but with significant heterogeneity which was partially explained by length of follow up (p = 0.03). A protective association was also seen for dementia (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.65, 0.94), which did not appear to be related to follow-up length but there was evidence of small study bias (p = 0.002) suggesting an absence of small null studies. The apparent protective effects of physical activity on cognitive health may partially reflect reverse causation and current estimates may be overly optimistic in terms of cognitive benefits. © 2012-IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved. Source


Allen N.,UK Biobank | Allen N.,University of Oxford | Sudlow C.,UK Biobank | Sudlow C.,University of Edinburgh | And 11 more authors.
Health Policy and Technology | Year: 2012

UK Biobank is a very large prospective study which aims to provide a resource for the investigation of the genetic, environmental and lifestyle determinants of a wide range of diseases of middle age and later life. Between 2006 and 2010, over 500,000 men and women aged 40 to 69 years were recruited and extensive data on participants' lifestyles, environment, medical history and physical measures, along with biological samples, were collected. The health of the participants is now being followed long-term, principally through linkage to a wide range of health-related records, with validation and characterisation of health-related outcomes. Further enhancements are also underway to improve phenotype characterisation, including internet-based dietary assessment, biomarker measurements on the baseline blood samples and, in sub-samples of the cohort, physical activity monitoring and proposals for extensive brain and body imaging. UK Biobank is now available for use by all researchers, without exclusive or preferential access, for any health-related research that is in the public interest. The open-access nature of the resource will allow researchers from around the world to conduct research that leads to better strategies for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of a wide range of life-threatening and disabling conditions. © 2012 Fellowship of Postgraduate Medicine. Source


Gallacher J.,Neuadd Meirionnydd
The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences | Year: 2011

The need for large studies and the types of large-scale data resources (LSDRs) are discussed along with their general scientific utility, role in aging research, and affordability. The diversification of approaches to large-scale data resourcing is described in order to facilitate their use in aging research. The need for LSDRs is discussed in terms of (a) large sample size; (b) longitudinal design; (c) as platforms for additional investigator-initiated research projects; and (d) broad-based access to core genetic, biological, and phenotypic data. It is concluded that a "lite-touch, lo-tech, lo-cost" approach to LSDRs is a viable strategy for the development of LSDRs and would enhance the likelihood of LSDRs being established which are dedicated to the wide range of important aging-related issues. Source


Creavin S.T.,University of Bristol | Gallacher J.,Neuadd Meirionnydd | Pickering J.,University of Cardiff | Fehily A.,Tinuviel Software | And 4 more authors.
European Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2012

To examine the hypothesis that caloric intake in mid-life is associated with later dementia or cognitive impairment not dementia (CIND). A prospective cohort study was conducted in Caerphilly, South Wales, United Kingdom. Men aged 45-59 years were identified from the electoral roll and general practice. 2,512 men were examined between July 1979 until September 1983. Four followup examinations were conducted every 4-5 years until 2004. Participants were categorized on the basis of their average daily caloric intake over each of the first three phases. Outcomes were CIND and dementia ascertained at phase five (2004). 192 men (15% of 1,248 participants at phase five) had CIND and 100 (8%) dementia. Age adjusted odds ratios demonstrated strongest associations between average energy consumption and vascular CIND or dementia (OR 1.62 95% CI 1.25-2.10). Adjustment for nutritional factors, vascular disease, diabetes, smoking, BP and BMI if anything increased the association (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.03-2.60). After adjusting for social class, associations were attenuated and consistent with chance (OR 1.48, 95% CI 0.92-2.38). When adjusted for social class, the previously observed association between caloric intake and cognitive outcomes is modest, consistent with chance, and may be due to residual confounding. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012. Source

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