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Humbert L.,University Pompeu Fabra | Humbert L.,Networking Biomedical Research Center Bioengineering | Whitmarsh T.,University Pompeu Fabra | Whitmarsh T.,Networking Biomedical Research Center Bioengineering | And 10 more authors.
2010 7th IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging: From Nano to Macro, ISBI 2010 - Proceedings | Year: 2010

The diagnosis of osteoporosis and the prevention of femur fractures is a major challenge for our society. However, the diagnosis performed in clinical routine from Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) images is limited. This paper proposes a 3D reconstruction method of both the shape and the Bone Mineral Density (BMD) distribution of the proximal femur from routinely used DXA images. The reconstruction accuracy that can be obtained from single-view and multi-view DXA devices was assessed. This evaluation, from 20 bone specimens and simulated DXA images, highlighted a mean shape accuracy of 1.3mm and a BMD accuracy of 4.4% from a single-view DXA image. A multi-view configuration with 2 views (frontal-sagittal) appeared as a good compromise (mean shape accuracy of 0.9mm and BMD accuracy of 3.2%). We are currently using this method for in vivo clinical studies in order to improve the diagnosis of osteoporosis and the prevention of femur fractures. © 2010 IEEE. Source


Whitmarsh T.,University Pompeu Fabra | Whitmarsh T.,Networking Biomedical Research Center Bioengineering | Whitmarsh T.,University of Sheffield | Humbert L.,University Pompeu Fabra | And 8 more authors.
Medical Image Analysis | Year: 2013

Current vertebral fracture prevention measures use Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) to quantify the density of the vertebrae and subsequently determine the risk of fracture. This modality however only provides information about the projected Bone Mineral Density (BMD) while the shape and spatial distribution of the bone determines the strength of the vertebrae. Quantitative Computed Tomography (QCT) allows for the measurement of the vertebral dimensions and volumetric densities, which have been shown to be able to determine the fracture risk more reliably than DXA. However, for the high cost and high radiation dose, QCT is not used in clinical routine for fracture risk assessment. In this work, we therefore propose a method to reconstruct the 3D shape and density volume of lumbar vertebrae from an anteroposterior (AP) and lateral DXA image used in clinical routine. The method is evaluated for the L2, L3 and L4 vertebra. Of these vertebrae a statistical model of the vertebral shape and density distribution is first constructed from a large dataset of QCT scans. All three models are then simultaneously registered onto both AP and lateral DXA image. The shape and volumetric BMD at several regions of the reconstructed vertebrae is then evaluated with respect to the ground truth QCT volumes. For the L2, L3 and L4 vertebrae respectively the shape was reconstructed with a mean (2RMS) point-to-surface distance of 1.00 (2.64). mm, 0.93(2.52). mm and 1.34(3.72). mm and a strong correlation (r>0.82) was found between the trabecular volumetric BMD extracted from the reconstructions and from the same subject QCT scans. These results indicate that the proposed method is able to accurately reconstruct the 3D shape and density volume of the lumbar vertebrae from AP and lateral DXA, which can potentially improve the fracture risk estimation accuracy with respect to the currently used DXA derived areal BMD measurements. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source


Humbert L.,University Pompeu Fabra | Humbert L.,Networking Biomedical Research Center Bioengineering | Whitmarsh T.,University Pompeu Fabra | Whitmarsh T.,Networking Biomedical Research Center Bioengineering | And 5 more authors.
Medical Physics | Year: 2012

Purpose: Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is used in clinical routine to provide a two-dimensional (2D) analysis of the bone mineral density (BMD). 3D reconstruction methods from 2D DXA images could improve the BMD analysis. To find the optimal configuration that should be used in clinical routine, this paper relies on a 3D reconstruction method from DXA images to compare the accuracy that can be obtained from one single-view and from multiview DXA images (two to four projections). Methods: The 3D reconstruction method uses a statistical model and a nonrigid registration technique to recover in 3D the shape and the BMD distribution of the proximal femur. The accuracy was evaluated in vivo by comparing 3D reconstructions obtained from simulated DXA images of 30 patients (using between one and four DXA views) with quantitative computed tomography reconstructions. Results: This comparison showed that the use of one single DXA provides accurate 3D reconstructions (mean shape accuracy of 1.0 mm and BMD distribution errors of 7.0). Among the multiview configurations, the use of two views (0° and 45°) was the best compromise, increasing the accuracy of pose (mean accuracy of 0.7°/1.2°/0.9° against 1.0°/3.5°/3.3° for the single view), reducing slightly the BMD errors (5.7) while maintaining the same shape accuracy. Conclusions: The use of two views constitutes an interesting configuration when multiview DXA devices are available in clinical routine. However, the use of only one single view remains an accurate solution to recover the shape and the BMD distribution in 3D, with the advantage of a higher potential for clinical translation. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine. Source

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