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Seeff L.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Hale D.,CHE Trinity Health | O'Brien D.J.,Network for Public Health Law
Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics | Year: 2015

This article explores how the ACA's community health needs assessment requirement and the Community Reinvestment Act can encourage collaboration among tax-exempt hospitals, public health agencies, financial institutions, and communities to improve population health through aligned health improvement planning and initiatives to address social, economic, and environmental factors that affect health. © 2015 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

Hammer M.S.,Network for Public Health Law
Environmental Forum | Year: 2014

Environmental professionals can lead the way toward protecting the public from hazardous noise pollution, as powerful but abandoned federal statutes leave state and local governments without guidance. Noise is not being addressed as consistently or urgently in the human population, but people suffer from excessive levels too. For urban dwellers, noise is more likely to come from a neighbor's leaf blower or the routine traffic on residential streets. The louder the noise, the more it affects the nervous system, causing a flight-or-fight response in the bodies. Children are more sensitive to noise than adults. And while it may seem obvious, it is important to note that only noise reduction can eliminate the adverse noise effects. Kids are learning to communicate and less experienced in appraising threats from stressors in their environment. As a result, children exposed to environmental noise pollution experience unique communication difficulties, increased arousal and impaired attention and learning.

Davis C.S.,Network for Public Health Law | Pierce M.,American University of Washington | Dasgupta N.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2014

Objectives. We sought to collect and characterize all laws governing the operation of prescription monitoring programs (PMPs), state-level databases that collect patient-specific prescription information, which have been suggested as a tool for reducing prescription drug overdose fatalities. Methods. We utilized a structured legal research protocol to systematically identify, review, and code all PMP statutes and regulations effective from 1998 through 2011. These laws were then abstracted along eleven domains, including reporting provisions, data sharing, and data access. Results. PMP characteristics vary greatly among states and across time. We observed an increase in the types and frequency of data required to be reported, the types of individuals permitted to access PMP data, and the percentage of PMPs authorized to proactively identify outlier prescribers and patients. As of 2011, 10 states required PMPs to report suspicious activity to law enforcement, while only 3 required reporting to the patient's physician. None required linkage to drug treatment or required all prescribers to review PMP data before prescribing. Few explicitly address data retention. Conclusions. State PMP laws are heterogeneous and evolving. Future studies of PMP effectiveness should take these variations into accoun.

Green T.C.,Injury Prevention Center | Green T.C.,Boston University | Green T.C.,Brown University | Dauria E.F.,Brown University | And 3 more authors.
Harm Reduction Journal | Year: 2015

The leading cause of adult injury death in the USA is drug overdose, the majority of which involves prescription opioid medications. Outside of the USA, deaths by drug overdose are also on the rise, and overdose is a leading cause of death for drug users. Reducing overdose risk while maintaining access to prescription opioids when medically indicated requires careful consideration of how opioids are prescribed and dispensed, how patients use them, how they interact with other medications, and how they are safely stored. Pharmacists, highly trained professionals expert at detecting and managing medication errors and drug-drug interactions, safe dispensing, and patient counseling, are an under-utilized asset in addressing overdose in the US and globally. Pharmacies provide a high-yield setting where patient and caregiver customers can access naloxone-an opioid antagonist that reverses opioid overdose-and overdose prevention counseling. This case study briefly describes and provides two US state-specific examples of innovative policy models of pharmacy-based naloxone, implemented to reduce overdose events and improve opioid safety: Collaborative Pharmacy Practice Agreements and Pharmacy Standing Orders. © 2015 Green et al.

Green T.C.,Inflexxion | Bowman S.,Inflexxion | Davis C.,Network for Public Health Law | Los C.,Inflexxion | And 2 more authors.
Drug and Alcohol Dependence | Year: 2015

Background: State prescription monitoring programs (PMPs) purport to address the prescription opioid epidemic, but have evidenced limited effect on reducing opioid-related mortality. Methods: We systematically reviewed publicly available, PMP web-based materials from December, 2012 to October, 2013, to assess the degree to which overdose prevention was articulated in state PMP goals, mission statement, and accessible educational materials. The sites and available resources of 47 state PMPs with a web presence were reviewed by two independent coders for use of "overdose" and related terms. Website materials were further coded to capture five general thematic orientations: supply reduction-therapeutic, supply reduction-punitive, demand reduction, public health/research, and harm reduction oriented in content. Results: Twenty-nine of 47 (62%) PMPs did not address overdose or related terms in available online materials; six (12.8%) contained overdose-oriented messaging; and two included specific overdose prevention tools for providers. There were a median of three thematic orientations represented on the 18 state PMP websites mentioning only the term overdose, compared with a median of 4.5 thematic domains on the six PMP websites with overdose-oriented content. Conclusions: A more comprehensive, public health orientation for PMPs that explicitly and publicly articulates their application and role in overdose prevention may increase PMP effectiveness and use. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

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