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Bilthoven, Netherlands

Bal S.M.,Leiden University | Ding Z.,Leiden University | Kersten G.F.A.,Netherlands Vaccine Institute | Jiskoot W.,Leiden University | Bouwstra J.A.,Leiden University
Pharmaceutical Research | Year: 2010

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the delivery and immunogenicity of N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC) adjuvanted diphtheria toxoid (DT) formulations applied transcutaneously with microneedles. Methods: Mice were vaccinated with DT-loaded TMC nanoparticles, a solution of TMC and DT (TMC/DT) or DT alone. The formulations were applied onto the skin before or after microneedle treatment with two different 300-μm-long microneedle arrays and also injected intradermally (ID). As a positive control, alum-adjuvanted DT (DT-alum) was injected subcutaneously (SC). Ex vivo confocal microscopy studies were performed with rhodamine-labelled TMC. Results: Independent of the microneedle array used and the sequence of microneedle treatment and vaccine application, transcutaneous immunisation with the TMC/DT mixture elicited 8-fold higher IgG titres compared to the TMC nanoparticles or DT solution. The toxin-neutralising antibody titres from this group were similar to those elicited by SC DT-alum. After ID immunisation, both TMC-containing formulations induced enhanced titres compared to a DT solution. Confocal microscopy studies revealed that transport of the TMC nanoparticles across the microneedle conduits was limited compared to a TMC solution. Conclusions: In conclusion, TMC has an adjuvant function in transcutaneous immunisation with microneedles, but only if applied in a solution. © 2010 The Author(s).

BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a primary cause of serious lower respiratory tract illness for which there is still no safe and effective vaccine available. Using reverse genetics, recombinant (r)RSV and an rRSV lacking the G gene (DeltaG) were constructed based on a clinical RSV isolate (strain 98-25147-X). RESULTS: Growth of both recombinant viruses was equivalent to that of wild type virus in Vero cells, but was reduced in human epithelial cells like Hep-2. Replication in cotton rat lungs could not be detected for DeltaG, while rRSV was 100-fold attenuated compared to wild type virus. Upon single dose intranasal administration in cotton rats, both recombinant viruses developed high levels of neutralizing antibodies and conferred comparable long-lasting protection against RSV challenge; protection against replication in the lungs lasted at least 147 days and protection against pulmonary inflammation lasted at least 75 days. CONCLUSION: Collectively, the data indicate that a single dose immunization with the highly attenuated DeltaG as well as the attenuated rRSV conferred long term protection in the cotton rat against subsequent RSV challenge, without inducing vaccine enhanced pathology. Since DeltaG is not likely to revert to a less attenuated phenotype, we plan to evaluate this deletion mutant further and to investigate its potential as a vaccine candidate against RSV infection.

Venhuis B.J.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment | Zomer G.,Netherlands Vaccine Institute | Vredenbregt M.J.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment | de Kaste D.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis | Year: 2010

Four blisters with suspect Cialis® (tadalafil) 20 mg tablets were screened for authenticity using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and for the presence of phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors using LC-DAD-MS. All samples were identified as counterfeit Cialis® and contained sildenafil or a combination of tadalafil and sildenafil. Although the tablets contained efficacious amounts of PDE-5 inhibitors, neither the active ingredient nor the dosage corresponded to the description on the blister. This is the first reported case of a diastereomeric mixture of tadalafil and trans-tadalafil (3:1) being identified in a counterfeit medicine. The LC-DAD-CD revealed that both diastereomers had a high optical purity. The optical rotation of the diastereomeric mixture was measured indicating the presence of (-)-trans-tadalafil, which is the only other stereoisomer with some PDE-5 inhibitory activity. As no safety profiles are known for the stereoisomers of tadalafil, there is a potential health risk. In addition, the optical purity of tadalafil needs to be taken into account when calculating the dosage in illegal medicines. © 2009.

Thomassen Y.E.,Netherlands Vaccine Institute | Van Sprang E.N.M.,Toegepaste Industriele Procesbeheersing | Van Der Pol L.A.,Netherlands Vaccine Institute | Bakker W.A.M.,Netherlands Vaccine Institute
Biotechnology and Bioengineering | Year: 2010

Historical manufacturing data can potentially harbor a wealth of information for process optimization and enhancement of efficiency and robustness. To extract useful data multivariate data analysis (MVDA) using projection methods is often applied. In this contribution, the results obtained from applying MVDA on data from inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) production runs are described. Data fromover 50 batches at two different production scales (700-L and 1,500-L) were available. The explorative analysis performed on single unit operations indicated consistent manufacturing. Known outliers (e.g., rejected batches) were identified using principal component analysis (PCA). The source of operational variation was pinpointed to variation of input such as media. Other relevant process parameters were in control and, using this manufacturing data, could not be correlated to product quality attributes. The gained knowledge of the IPV production process, not only from the MVDA, but also from digitalizing the available historical data, has proven to be useful for troubleshooting, understanding limitations of available data and seeing the opportunity for improvements. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Biesbroek G.,University Utrecht | Biesbroek G.,TNO | Wang X.,University Utrecht | Keijser B.J.F.,TNO | And 6 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014

Seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV- 7) is effective against vaccine serotype disease and carriage. Nevertheless, shifts in colonization and disease toward nonvaccine serotypes and other potential pathogens have been described. To understand the extent of these shifts, we analyzed nasopharyngeal microbial profiles of 97 PCV-7-vaccinated infants and 103 control infants participating in a randomized controlled trial in the Netherlands. PCV-7 immunization resulted in a temporary shift in microbial community composition and increased bacterial diversity. Immunization also resulted in decreased presence of the pneumococcal vaccine serotype and an increase in the relative abundance and presence of nonpneumococcal streptococci and anaerobic bacteria. Furthermore, the abundance of Haemophilus and Staphylococcus bacteria in vaccinees was increased over that in controls. This study illustrates the much broader effect of vaccination with PCV- 7 on the microbial community than currently assumed, and highlights the need for careful monitoring when implementing vaccines directed against common colonizers.

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