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Leiden, Netherlands

Puigvert J.C.,Leiden University | Puigvert J.C.,Netherlands Toxicogenomics Center | De Bont H.,Leiden University | Van De Water B.,Leiden University | Danen E.H.J.,Leiden University
Current Protocols in Cell Biology | Year: 2010

Apoptosis is important for embryonic development, tissue homeostasis, and removal of cells with (potentially transforming) DNA lesions or other types of injuries. Functional genomics screens performed to unravel apoptotic signaling cascades in the context of toxicant-induced cell injury commonly use apoptosis as an end-point. Here, a method to detect the accumulation of apoptotic cells in real time that is well suited for high-throughput screens is described. The method uses automated microscopy in a 96-well format setting to visualize binding of fluorescent annexin V to the outer membrane leaflet of apoptotic cells. The automated image acquisition is followed by quantitative analysis using bioinformatics software. A protocol for each of the steps in this kinetic method is described, which includes the caspase-dependent apoptotic response to toxic compounds in multiple cell types and demonstrates that RNAi-based gene silencing of candidate apoptotic regulators affects the apoptosis kinetics as expected. This protocol will be useful for functional genomics as well as chemical (drug) screens. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

von Stechow L.,Leiden University | von Stechow L.,Netherlands Toxicogenomics Center | Ruiz-Aracama A.,RIKILT Institute of Food Safety | Ruiz-Aracama A.,Netherlands Toxicogenomics Center | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

The chemotherapeutic compound, cisplatin causes various kinds of DNA lesions but also triggers other pertubations, such as ER and oxidative stress. We and others have shown that treatment of pluripotent stem cells with cisplatin causes a plethora of transcriptional and post-translational alterations that, to a major extent, point to DNA damage response (DDR) signaling. The orchestrated DDR signaling network is important to arrest the cell cycle and repair the lesions or, in case of damage beyond repair, eliminate affected cells. Failure to properly balance the various aspects of the DDR in stem cells contributes to ageing and cancer. Here, we performed metabolic profiling by mass spectrometry of embryonic stem (ES) cells treated for different time periods with cisplatin. We then integrated metabolomics with transcriptomics analyses and connected cisplatin-regulated metabolites with regulated metabolic enzymes to identify enriched metabolic pathways. These included nucleotide metabolism, urea cycle and arginine and proline metabolism. Silencing of identified proline metabolic and catabolic enzymes indicated that altered proline metabolism serves as an adaptive, rather than a toxic response. A group of enriched metabolic pathways clustered around the metabolite S-adenosylmethionine, which is a hub for methylation and transsulfuration reactions and polyamine metabolism. Enzymes and metabolites with pro- or anti-oxidant functions were also enriched but enhanced levels of reactive oxygen species were not measured in cisplatin-treated ES cells. Lastly, a number of the differentially regulated metabolic enzymes were identified as target genes of the transcription factor p53, pointing to p53-mediated alterations in metabolism in response to genotoxic stress. Altogether, our findings reveal interconnecting metabolic pathways that are responsive to cisplatin and may serve as signaling modules in the DDR in pluripotent stem cells. © 2013 von Stechow et al.

Van Leeuwen D.M.,Maastricht University | Pedersen M.,Copenhagen University | Knudsen L.E.,Copenhagen University | Bonassi S.,Unit of Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology | And 5 more authors.
Mutagenesis | Year: 2011

Mechanistically relevant information on responses of humans to xenobiotic exposure in relation to chemically induced biological effects, such as micronuclei (MN) formation can be obtained through large-scale transcriptomics studies. Network analysis may enhance the analysis and visualisation of such data. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a 'MN formation' network based on a priori knowledge, by using the pathway tool MetaCore. The gene network contained 27 genes and three gene complexes that are related to processes involved in MN formation, e.g. spindle assembly checkpoint, cell cycle checkpoint and aneuploidy. The MN-related gene network was tested against a transcriptomics case study associated with MN measurements. In this case study, transcriptomic data from children and adults differentially exposed to ambient air pollution in the Czech Republic were analysed and visualised on the network. Six genes from the network, i.e. BAX, DMNT1, PCNA, HIC1, p21 and CDC20, were retrieved. Based on these six genes and in combination with p53 and IL-6, a dedicated network was created. This dedicated network is possibly suited for the development of a reporter gene assay that could be used to screen populations complementary to the current MN test assay. In conclusion, we have shown that network analysis of transcriptomics data in relation to the formation of MN is possible and provides a novel mechanistic hypothesis by indicating which genes are regulated and influence others. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the UK Environmental Mutagen Society. All rights reserved.

Puigvert J.C.,Leiden University | Von Stechow L.,Leiden University | Von Stechow L.,Netherlands Toxicogenomics Center | Siddappa R.,Leiden University | And 11 more authors.
Science Signaling | Year: 2013

In pluripotent stem cells, DNA damage triggers loss of pluripotency and apoptosis as a safeguard to exclude damaged DNA from the lineage. An intricate DNA damage response (DDR) signaling network ensures that the response is proportional to the severity of the damage. We combined an RNA interference screen targeting all kinases, phosphatases, and transcription factors with global transcriptomics and phosphoproteomics to map the DDR in mouse embryonic stem cells treated with the DNA cross-linker cisplatin. Networks derived from canonical pathways shared in all three data sets were implicated in DNA damage repair, cell cycle and survival, and differentiation. Experimental probing of these networks identified a mode of DNA damage-induced Wnt signaling that limited apoptosis. Silencing or deleting the p53 gene demonstrated that genotoxic stress elicited Wnt signaling in a p53-independent manner. Instead, this response occurred through reduced abundance of Csnk1a1 (CK1α), a kinase that inhibits β-catenin. Together, our findings reveal a balance between p53-mediated elimination of stem cells (through loss of pluripotency and apoptosis) and Wnt signaling that attenuates this response to tune the outcome of the DDR.

Jennen D.G.J.,Maastricht University | Jennen D.G.J.,Netherlands Toxicogenomics Center | Magkoufopoulou C.,Maastricht University | Magkoufopoulou C.,Netherlands Toxicogenomics Center | And 7 more authors.
Toxicological Sciences | Year: 2010

Direct comparison of the hepatoma cell lines HepG2 and HepaRG has previously been performed by only evaluating a limited set of genes or proteins. In this study, we examined the whole-genome gene expression of both cell lines before and after exposure to the genotoxic (GTX) carcinogens aflatoxin B1 and benzo[a]pyrene and the nongenotoxic (NGTX) carcinogens cyclosporin A, 17β-estradiol, and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-paradioxin for 12 and 48 h. Before exposure, this analysis revealed an extensive network of genes and pathways, which were regulated differentially for each cell line. The comparison of the basal gene expression between HepG2, HepaRG, primary human hepatocytes (PHH), and liver clearly showed that HepaRG resembles PHH and liver the most. After exposure to the GTX and NGTX carcinogens, for both cell lines, common pathways were found that are important in carcinogenesis, for example, cell cycle regulation and apoptosis. However, also clear differences between exposed HepG2 and HepaRG were observed, and these are related to common metabolic processes, immune response, and transcription processes. Furthermore, HepG2 performs better in discriminating between GTX and NGTX carcinogens. In conclusion, these results have shown that HepaRG is a more suited in vitro liver model for biological interpretations of the effects of exposure to chemicals, whereas HepG2 is a more promising in vitro liver model for classification studies using the toxicogenomics approach. Although, it should be noted that only five carcinogens were used in this study. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved.

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