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Hagenbeek F.A.,VU Amsterdam | Hagenbeek F.A.,EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research | Kluft C.,The Good | Hankemeier T.,Leiden University | And 16 more authors.
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics

Human aggression encompasses a wide range of behaviors and is related to many psychiatric disorders. We introduce the different classification systems of aggression and related disorders as a basis for discussing biochemical biomarkers and then present an overview of studies in humans (published between 1990 and 2015) that reported statistically significant associations of biochemical biomarkers with aggression, DSM-IV disorders involving aggression, and their subtypes. The markers are of different types, including inflammation markers, neurotransmitters, lipoproteins, and hormones from various classes. Most studies focused on only a limited portfolio of biomarkers, frequently a specific class only. When integrating the data, it is clear that compounds from several biological pathways have been found to be associated with aggressive behavior, indicating complexity and the need for a broad approach. In the second part of the paper, using examples from the aggression literature and psychiatric metabolomics studies, we argue that a better understanding of aggression would benefit from a more holistic approach such as provided by metabolomics. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Gonzalez-Covarrubias V.,The Netherlands Metabolomics Center | Gonzalez-Covarrubias V.,Leiden University | Dane A.,The Netherlands Metabolomics Center | Dane A.,Leiden University | And 4 more authors.

Lipid profiling of human plasma by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) is being used to identify biomarkers of health, disease, and treatment efficacy. However, there is no consensus on the choice of anticoagulant to perform and compare lipidomic measurements. This study assessed the effect of the anticoagulants citrate, EDTA, and heparin, on eight synthetic and 80 plasma lipids, and compared lipidomic data among anticoagulants. Lipid extraction was affected distinctively by the anticoagulant of choice likely due to the different physico-chemical properties among anticoagulants. Peak areas of seventy endogenous lipids showed significant differences between citrate-heparin and EDTA-heparin comparisons similar to those observed for synthetic lipids. Only ten endogenous lipid species showed comparable peak areas among the three anticoagulants. Correction by a structurally related internal standard only partly eliminated differences among anticoagulants (ANOVA, P value <0. 001). However, comparisons among anticoagulants were possible for most endogenous lipids after correction of peak areas by the sum of areas of its lipid class. Our observations indicate that the choice of anticoagulant distinctively impact the peak response of most lipid species by LC-ESI-MS. Lipidomic data from plasma obtained with different anticoagulants should address differences in matrix effects and extraction procedures since ion strength, plasma pH, and different physicochemical properties among anticoagulants influence lipid extraction and LC-ESI-MS analysis. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

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