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Beets G.,Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute NIDI
Acta Universitatis Carolinae, Geographica | Year: 2011

Two decades after Aleš Hrdlička's death the introduction of effective contraceptives broke the evolutionary link between sexuality and procreation. Since then we decide about having children or not, and if we want them we can also decide about their timing. As a consequence the number of children declined to numbers that fit modern life styles and the age at first birth has risen considerably. However having children remains a chance, every month again. For the majority having children goes without problems worth speaking of. But a minority risks the chance of remaining without children or with only one child as they started to try having children 'too late'. This contribution overviews the backgrounds and the pros and cons of the rising age at first birth.


Zoutewelle-Terovan M.,Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute NIDI | Skardhamar T.,Statistics Norway
Journal of Quantitative Criminology | Year: 2016

Objectives: This article examines the timing of change in criminal offending relative to entrance into parenthood, in light of four competing theoretical frameworks (social control, routine activities, strain and cognitive transformation). Moreover, it analyzes whether criminal developments over time are gender- or country-specific. Methods: Using samples of men and women at risk of offending in the Netherlands and Norway, this study investigates monthly changes in offending probabilities around the time of first birth (5 years before, 5 years after). The implemented smoothing splines technique allowed for a flexible exploration of changes in offending probabilities for both pre-childbirth and post-childbirth periods. Results: The results show that the probabilities to offend decline ahead of childbirth for all individuals analyzed. The post-childbirth period is characterized by increases in offending probabilities. However, in these overall trends, the exact timing and magnitude of change differs by gender and country of residence. Conclusions: The results offer partial support for the cognitive transformation hypothesis because offending rates decline before childbirth. The post-childbirth period converges with assumptions of the strain theory (for males in particular) because offending probabilities increase in this period. Additional analysis investigating changes in property offending shows that economic strain does not explain the upward trend of the overall offending after childbirth. © 2016 The Author(s)


Van Dalen H.P.,Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute NIDI | Van Dalen H.P.,University of Tilburg | Henkens K.,Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute NIDI | Henkens K.,University of Tilburg
Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology | Year: 2012

How does publication pressure in modern-day universities affect the intrinsic and extrinsic rewards in science? By using a worldwide survey among demographers in developed and developing countries, the authors show that the large majority perceive the publication pressure as high, but more so in Anglo-Saxon countries and to a lesser extent in Western Europe. However, scholars see both the pros (upward mobility) and cons (excessive publication and uncitedness, neglect of policy issues, etc.) of the so-called publish-or-perish culture. By measuring behavior in terms of reading and publishing, and perceived extrinsic rewards and stated intrinsic rewards of practicing science, it turns out that publication pressure negatively affects the orientation of demographers towards policy and knowledge sharing. There are no signs that the pressure affects reading and publishing outside the core discipline. © 2012 ASIS&T.


Van Solinge H.,Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute NIDI | Henkens K.,Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute NIDI
European Journal of Public Health | Year: 2010

Background: Virtually all Western countries are seeking to bring retirement ages more in line with increases in longevity. The central question in this article is whether individuals choose a retirement age that fits their life expectancy. This would be ideal from a public policy perspective. The present study aims to test empirically whether retirement planning varies with expectations of survival among a sample of older employees in the Netherlands. Two questions are addressed: (i) what are older employees' expectations of their remaining lifetime, and what factors influence this subjective life expectancy? (ii) Are individuals who perceive longer life horizons (high subjective life expectancy) more inclined to retire later than people who expect to live shorter? Methods: Using data from a panel study on retirement behaviour in the Netherlands (N = 1621 older employees aged 50-60 years), regression and survival models are estimated to examine the effect of subjective life expectancy on retirement planning and behaviour. Results: The results indicate that subjective life expectancy is a factor that is taken into account in retirement decision making, at least as far as retirement intentions are concerned. Older employees with longer time horizons have a preference for later retirement. When it comes to actual behaviour, however, time horizon does not appear to play a role. Conclusion: The results suggest that particularly employees with a high perceived life expectancy and an intention to work longer do not succeed in carrying their intentions into effect.


de Jong Gierveld J.,Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute NIDI | van Tilburg T.,VU University Amsterdam
European Journal of Ageing | Year: 2010

Loneliness concerns the subjective evaluation of the situation individuals are involved in, characterized either by a number of relationships with friends and colleagues which is smaller than is considered desirable (social loneliness), as well as situations where the intimacy in confidant relationships one wishes for has not been realized (emotional loneliness). To identify people who are lonely direct questions are not sufficient; loneliness scales are preferred. In this article, the quality of the three-item scale for emotional loneliness and the three-item scale for social loneliness has been investigated for use in the following countries participating in the United Nations "Generations and Gender Surveys": France, Germany, the Netherlands, Russia, Bulgaria, Georgia, and Japan. Sample sizes for the 7 countries varied between 8,158 and 12,828. Translations of the De Jong Gierveld loneliness scale have been tested using reliability and validity tests including a confirmatory factor analysis to test the two-dimensional structure of loneliness. Test outcomes indicated for each of the countries under investigation reliable and valid scales for emotional and social loneliness, respectively. © 2010 The Author(s).


van Gaalen R.I.,Statistics Netherlands CBS | Dykstra P.A.,Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute NIDI | Komter A.E.,University Utrecht
Journal of Aging Studies | Year: 2010

We challenge the common idea that solidarity has positive, whereas conflict has negative implications, by investigating intergenerational ambivalence - defined as the co-occurrence of solidarity and conflict - and relationship quality. We use representative data on non-coresident adult children and parents with high levels of contact (weekly or more; N = 2,694 dyads). Results show that over half of high contact parent-child ties can be characterized as ambivalent and of high-quality. The likelihood of negative instead of positive ambivalent ties is greater if adult children have few exit options because they are socially isolated or have a small number of siblings. Ties between fathers and sons, and those between caring daughters and aging parents also have a high probability of belonging to the negative ambivalent type. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


de Jong Gierveld J.,Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute NIDI | de Jong Gierveld J.,VU University Amsterdam | Tesch-Romer C.,Free University of Berlin
European Journal of Ageing | Year: 2012

Data from European countries participating in the Generations and Gender Surveys showed that mean loneliness scores of older adults are higher in Eastern than in Western European countries. Although co-residence is considered as one of the fundamental types of social integration, and although co-residence is more common in Eastern Europe, the mean loneliness scores of older co-resident adults in Eastern Europe are still very high. This article investigates mechanisms behind the puzzling between-country differences in social integration and loneliness. Firstly, the theoretical framework of loneliness is discussed starting from the individual's perspective using the deficit and the cognitive discrepancy approach and taking into account older adults' deprived living conditions. Secondly, mechanisms at the societal level are investigated: cultural norms, the demographical composition and differences in societal wealth and welfare. It is argued that an integrated theoretical model, as developed in this article, combining individual and societal level elements, is most relevant for understanding the puzzling reality around social integration and loneliness in country-comparative research. An illustration of the interplay of individual and societal factors in the emergence of loneliness is presented. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


van Solinge H.,Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute NIDI
European Journal of Ageing | Year: 2014

Self-employment among older age groups is rising. A better understanding of the role of self-employment in extending the working lives of individuals is, therefore, relevant from a policy perspective. By bridging the gap in the literature on work/retirement decision-making and entrepreneurship, the present study examines the factors associated with entry into self-employment post-retirement, after a worker has left a regular salaried position. This decision is modelled as a choice between full retirement and prolonged labour force participation, in the form of either a typical wage-providing job or self-employment. Data were derived from the Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute Work and Retirement Panel, an ongoing longitudinal survey of older workers (50 years and over) employed by three private sector organisations and employed as civil servants in the Netherlands. These data were then analysed using multinomial logistic regression analysis. The results of this study show that the decision to pursue self-employment is primarily taken by retirees with relatively high levels of financial and human capital (wealth and educational attainment), those possessing entrepreneurial attitudes (high self-efficacy scores) and those who perceive their retirements to be completely involuntary. The results lend support to self-employment being selected as a postretirement path through opportunity rather than out of necessity. The fact that the retirements of the studied population were generally quite early, while not considered involuntary also suggests that the timing of the decision to retire may be driven by the emergence of new (business) opportunities. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Van Solinge H.,Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute NIDI | Henkens K.,Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute NIDI | Henkens K.,University of Amsterdam
Ageing and Society | Year: 2014

This article examines work-related factors and their impact on the retirement decision-making process. We particularly focus on organisational human resources policies and normative climate regarding retirement. Organisations create opportunities and conditions for career extension via their personnel instruments. The normative climate may encourage or discourage retirement. We use a ten-year follow-up study among 1,458 older employees in the Netherlands aged 50-59 at baseline. Results reveal that older workers are sensitive to social approval earned from their co-workers and supervisor. A social climate that supports working up to higher ages is an important requisite for reducing the attractiveness of the early retirement option. Retirement intentions, formed in the years prior to retirement, are shaped by workplace norms and supervisors' attitudes. Results indicate that in order to delay retirement, policy initiatives cannot be reduced to altering financial restrictions surrounding retirement but need to address the forces at the organisational level that channel workers out of employment. © 2013 Cambridge University Press.


Damman M.,Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute NIDI | Henkens K.,Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute NIDI | Henkens K.,University of Amsterdam | Kalmijn M.,University of Amsterdam
Journals of Gerontology - Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences | Year: 2013

Objectives. Even though in retirement and career theories reference is made to a preretirement work disengagement process among older workers, quantitative empirical knowledge about this process is limited. The aim of this study is to improve our understanding of work disengagement in the preretirement period, by examining the impact of proximity to planned retirement (anticipated future) and work, educational, and health experiences (lived past) on changes of work disengagement during late careers.Method. Using two-wave panel data collected in 2001 and 2006-2007 among Dutch older workers (N = 596), a scale was developed to measure work investments, activities, and motivation during late careers. We estimated conditional change models to examine changes of these scale scores (i.e., disengagement or re-engagement) over the studied period.Results. In line with the preretirement work disengagement process hypothesis, this study shows that many older employees disengage more from work when getting closer to their planned retirement age. Making promotion slows down the disengagement process. Declining health, in contrast, accelerates the process.Discussion. For achieving a comprehensive understanding of the retirement process, not only the lived past but also the anticipated future (i.e., expected time-left in the current state) should be taken into account. © 2013 The Author.

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