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Schoenmakers E.C.,VU University Amsterdam | Van Tilburg T.G.,VU University Amsterdam | Fokkema T.,Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute
Aging and Mental Health | Year: 2012

Objectives: A limited amount of information is available on how older adults cope with loneliness. Two ways of coping are distinguished here, i.e., active coping by improving relationships and regulative coping by lowering expectations about relationships. We explore how often older adults suggest these options to their lonely peers in various situations and to what extent individual resources influence their suggestions. Method: After introducing them to four vignettes of lonely individuals, discriminating with regard to age, partner status, and health, 1187 respondents aged 62-100 from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam were asked whether this loneliness can be alleviated by using various ways of coping. Results: In general, both ways of coping were often suggested. However, regression analyses revealed that active coping was suggested less often to people who are older, in poor health, or lonely and by older adults who were employed in midlife and have high self-esteem. Regulative coping was suggested more often to people who are older and by older adults with a low educational level and with low mastery. Conclusions: Coping with loneliness by actively removing the stressor is less often seen as an option for and by the people who could benefit most from it. This underlines the difficulty of combating loneliness. © 2012 Taylor & Francis.

Bijlsma M.J.,University of Groningen | Janssen F.,University of Groningen | Janssen F.,Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute | Hak E.,University of Groningen
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety | Year: 2016

Purpose: Accurate measurement of drug adherence is essential for valid risk-benefit assessments of pharmacologic interventions. To date, measures of drug adherence have almost exclusively been applied for a fixed-time interval and without considering changes over time. However, patients with irregular dosing behaviour commonly have a different prognosis than patients with stable dosing behaviour. Methods: We propose a method, based on the proportion of days covered (PDC) method, to measure time-varying drug adherence and drug dosage using electronic records. We compare a time-fixed PDC method with the time-varying PDC method through detailed examples and through summary statistics of 100 randomly selected patients on statin therapy. Results: We demonstrate that time-varying PDC method better distinguishes an irregularly dosing patient from a stably dosing patient and demonstrate how the time-fixed method can result in a biassed estimate of drug adherence. Furthermore, the time-varying PDC method may be better used to reduce certain types of confounding and misclassification of exposure. Conclusions: The time-varying PDC method may improve longitudinal and time-to-event studies that associate adherence with a clinical outcome or (intervention) studies that seek to describe changes in adherence over time. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Fiori K.L.,Adelphi University | Consedine N.S.,University of Auckland | Merz E.-M.,Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute
Research on Aging | Year: 2011

Dispositional styles of relating to significant others-adult attachment-are linked to social relatedness across the life span. Prior work has concentrated on the receipt of perceived social support and not examined links between attachment and patterns of exchange. Data from a sample of older adults (N 1,118) were used to examine how secure, dismissive, and fearfully avoidant dimensions were associated with network size and patterns of exchange in kin and non-kin networks. Security was related to larger network size, greater reciprocity, and less "giving" to kin, whereas dismissiveness was associated with smaller non-kin networks, greater reciprocity, less "giving" to kin and non-kin, and more relationships involving "receiving" from kin. Levels of fearful avoidance were associated with fewer reciprocal relationships and more "receiving" from kin. Data are interpreted in light of attachment's manifestations in motivational and interpersonal systems and may help explain variations in later life social network functioning. © The Author(s) 2011.

Merz E.-M.,Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute
Ageing and Society | Year: 2010

This paper examines the associations between different forms of support, who provides the support and the wellbeing of older adults in Germany. Particular attention is paid to the wellbeing differences associated with kin and non-kin providers and with emotional support and instrumental support. In addition, the quality of relationships with kin and non-kin is examined as a moderator of the association between social support and wellbeing. Data for 1,146 respondents to the German Ageing Survey in 2002 were analysed to determine the combinations of emotional or instrumental support, kin or non-kin providers and relationship quality that best predicted wellbeing. Emotional support from kin and instrumental support from non-kin were both found to associate positively with wellbeing. Emotional support from non-kin providers did not associate with wellbeing, whereas instrumental support from kin providers had a negative association with one aspect of wellbeing. Higher relationship quality, whether with kin or non-kin, positively related to wellbeing. Interestingly, the negative impact of instrumental kin support was qualified by relationship quality. In other words, for people with high-quality relationships, receiving instrumental support from kin did not decrease wellbeing. When the relationship with a family carer or supporter is characterised by high quality, the challenges of frailties in old age, such as decreasing capacities and an increasing need for social support, can be met without compromising wellbeing. Copyright © 2010 Cambridge University Press.

Hershey D.A.,Oklahoma State University | Henkens K.,Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute | Henkens K.,University of Amsterdam
Gerontologist | Year: 2014

Purpose: This study examines how life satisfaction changes as a function of the transition into retirement, distinguishing between different types of voluntary and involuntary exits. Design and Methods: Perceived satisfaction with life (SWL) was measured among 1,388 older Dutch workers on two occasions, separated by 6 years. During that time, more than half of participants (54%) left full-time employment and entered retirement. Results: Those who made a voluntarily departure from the workforce reported higher levels of perceived SWL compared with those who remained employed, whereas the life satisfaction scores of those whose departure was involuntary (due to health reasons, organizational reasons) were found to be the lowest. Other factors that had an effect on satisfaction included positive and negative health changes experienced during the 6-year interim, as well as changes in marital status due to divorce or loss of a spouse. Implications: These findings have important theoretical implications for the understanding of factors that shape individuals' perceptions of how they view the quality of their lives. From an applied perspective, the findings have implications for the development of organizational initiatives aimed at helping workers transition into retirement in such a way as to maintain high levels of subjective well-being. © 2013 The Author.

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