Cadee G.C.,Netherlands Institute for Sea Research
Palaios | Year: 2011
In the Wadden Sea, shell repair frequency in the small gastropod Hydrobia ulvae varied from 2.8% to 11.2%. On tidal flats of the Mok, a small bay on the island of Texel, The Netherlands, in the Wadden Sea, higher repair frequencies varying from 11.8% to 41.8% were measured. The shelduck, Tadorna tadorna, a predator of Hydrobia, occurs here in densities far above average densities for the Wadden Sea. Shelducks ingest their prey whole and crush the shells of H. ulvae internally. Live specimens of H. ulvae were collected from shelduck feces. Those with intact operculum and only a damaged outer aperture rim of the shell were kept in aquaria and repaired their shell rapidly. This indicates that predators that ingest shelled prey can also leave repair scars on shells. Such scars, however, are indistinguishable from those resulting from failed predation by predators using such pre-ingestive shell breakage as decapod crustaceans. Copyright © 2011, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).
Van Haren H.,Netherlands Institute for Sea Research
Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans | Year: 2011
An accurate bottom pressure sensor has been moored at different sites varying from a shallow sea strait via open ocean guyots to a 1900 m deep Gulf of Mexico. All sites show more or less sloping bottom topography. Focusing on frequencies (σ) higher than tidal, the pressure records are remarkably similar, to within the 95% statistical significance bounds, in the internal gravity wave continuum (IWC) band up to buoyancy frequency N. The IWC has a relatively uniform spectral slope: log(P(σ)) = -αlog(σ), α= 2 ± 1/3. The spectral collapse is confirmed from independent internal hydrostatic pressure estimate, which suggests a saturated IWC. For σ > N, all pressure-spectra transit to a bulge that differs in magnitude. This bulge is commonly attributed to long surface waves. For the present data it is suggested to be due to stratified turbulence-internal wave coupling, which is typically large over sloping topography. The bulge drops off at a more or less common frequency of 2-3 × 10-2 Hz, which is probably related with typical turbulent overturning scales. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.
Van Haren H.,Netherlands Institute for Sea Research
Geophysical Research Letters | Year: 2010
Large vertical temperature differences up to 3°C m-1 are observed very near (<0.5 m from) the 2-m sand-waves bottom in a 20-25 m deep sea strait dominated by tidal flows >1 m s-1. The upper sensor at 0.42 m above the bottom (mab) follows typical temperature variations higher up in the water column, being-90° out-of-phase with the main along-channel current. In contrast, the lower sensor at 0.08 mab is approximately +30-50° more in-phase with the free-stream current. The data confirm the mechanism of "tidal straining", but much closer to the bottom than previously observed and in a 3-D version with cross-flow influences. In this mechanism, turbulent shear flow and horizontal density gradients create stable stratification during ebb and unstable conditions during flood. Here, stratification provides a slippery boundary flow-condition and periodic support of short-scale internal waves with periods down to 50 s. © 2010 by the American Geophysical Union.
van Gils J.A.,Netherlands Institute for Sea Research
Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society | Year: 2013
Recent insights suggest that predators should include (mildly) toxic prey when non-toxic food is scarce. However, the assumption that toxic prey is energetically as profitable as non-toxic prey misses the possibility that non-toxic prey have other ways to avoid being eaten, such as the formation of an indigestible armature. In that case, predators face a trade-off between avoiding toxins and minimizing indigestible ballast intake. Here, we report on the trophic interactions between a shorebird (red knot, Calidris canutus canutus) and its two main bivalve prey, one being mildly toxic but easily digestible, and the other being non-toxic but harder to digest. A novel toxin-based optimal diet model is developed and tested against an existing one that ignores toxin constraints on the basis of data on prey abundance, diet choice, local survival and numbers of red knots at Banc d'Arguin (Mauritania) over 8 years. Observed diet and annual survival rates closely fit the predictions of the toxin-based model, with survival and population size being highest in years when the non-toxic prey is abundant. In the 6 of 8 years when the non-toxic prey is not abundant enough to satisfy the energy requirements, red knots must rely on the toxic alternative.
van Aken H.M.,Netherlands Institute for Sea Research
Journal of Sea Research | Year: 2010
Time series of observations of the sea surface temperature (SST) at 12 stations in the Dutch coastal zone are analyzed to establish whether an earlier published nearly 150 year long SST time series from the Marsdiep tidal inlet is representative for the whole Dutch coastal zone. The annual cycles (SST range and phase) as well as the long-term SST trends at decadal scales from other estuaries agree with the Marsdiep time series. An increasing SST trend since 1982 is a phenomenon of the whole Dutch coastal zone. In order to increase the understanding of the causes of the observed SST variability, a multiple linear regression model is constructed, which links locally determined seasonal meteorological and oceanographic forcing factors to the seasonal mean SST. The oceanographic forcing factor is the SST value from the preceding season, representing persistence due to thermal inertia of the sea. Season to season changes of the atmospheric circulation, connected with SST variability, are represented by seasonal mean wind components as forcing factors, e.g. the western winds in winter which bring relatively warm air masses to Western Europe. For the seasons where shortwave solar radiation is the dominant term in the local heat budget (spring and summer), the number of bright sun hours is used as forcing factor, roughly representing the effects of changing cloudiness. The annual mean SST, derived from the regression models for the four seasons, applied to 4 locations along the Dutch coast, correlates quite well, not only for the year to year variability (R = 0.88) but also for the longer-term SST trends (R = 0.95). An explicit local greenhouse effect is not required as separate forcing factor to explain the recent warming trend of Dutch coastal waters starting in the early 1980s; coincident variations in wind statistics and cloudiness are a sufficient explanation. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.