Netherlands Institute for Neurosciences

Amsterdam, Netherlands

Netherlands Institute for Neurosciences

Amsterdam, Netherlands
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Beyer N.,Queen's University of Belfast | Coulson D.T.R.,Queen's University of Belfast | Heggarty S.,Belfast City Hospital | Ravid R.,Netherlands Institute for Neurosciences | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease | Year: 2012

Zinc (Zn 2+) is concentrated into pre-synaptic vesicles and co-released with neurotransmitter at some synapses. Zn 2+ can accelerate assembly of the amyloid-β peptides (Aβ) and tau protein central to the neuropathological changes found in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Altered protein levels of the membrane Zn 2+ transporters ZnT1, ZnT4, and ZnT6 have been reported in AD postmortem brain tissue. The present study analyzed mRNA levels of five established (LIV1, ZIP1, ZnT1, ZnT4, and ZnT6) and one potential (PRNP) Zn 2+ transporter in human postmortem brain tissue from Braak-staged individuals with AD and controls using quantitative real-time PCR. Four cortical regions (middle temporal gyrus, superior occipital gyrus, superior parietal gyrus, and superior frontal gyrus) and cerebellum were examined. PRNP mRNA levels were decreased by ∼30% in all four cortical regions examined in AD patients, but unchanged in the cerebellum. In contrast, some increases in mRNA levels of the other more established Zn 2+ transporters (LIV1, ZIP1, ZnT1, ZnT6) were found in AD cortex. The ratios of the mRNA levels of LIV1, ZIP1, ZnT1, ZnT4, and ZnT6/mRNA level of neuron specific enolase increased significantly as the disease progressed and Braak stage increased. Significant correlations were also identified between mRNA levels of several of the Zn 2+ transporters investigated. These expression changes could either reflect or cause the altered cortical Zn 2+ distribution in AD, potentially increasing the likelihood of interactions between Zn 2+ and Aβ or tau protein. © 2012-IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.

Scherder E.J.A.,VU University Amsterdam | Bogen T.,VU University Amsterdam | Eggermont L.H.P.,VU University Amsterdam | Hamers J.P.H.,Maastricht University | Swaab D.F.,Netherlands Institute for Neurosciences
International Psychogeriatrics | Year: 2010

Epidemiological studies show a close relationship between physical activity and cognition. A causal relationship between physical activity and cognition has been observed in children, adolescents, older people without dementia, and in older people in a very early stage of dementia. Considering these positive effects, we argue that a decline in physical activity has a detrimental effect on cognition and behavior in patients with dementia. Merely living in a nursing home reduces the level of physical activity. The level of physical activity may even be reduced to a minimum when physical restraints are applied. The use of physical restraints coincides with stress, further aggravating the already existing neuropathology, which may increase stress and agitation even more. Exercise may reduce stress and agitation. © International Psychogeriatric Association 2010.

Klaassen I.,University of Amsterdam | Van Noorden C.J.F.,University of Amsterdam | Schlingemann R.O.,University of Amsterdam | Schlingemann R.O.,Netherlands Institute for Neurosciences
Progress in Retinal and Eye Research | Year: 2013

Breakdown of the inner endothelial blood-retinal barrier (BRB), as occurs in diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, retinal vein occlusions, uveitis and other chronic retinal diseases, results in vasogenic edema and neural tissue damage, causing loss of vision. The central mechanism of altered BRB function is a change in the permeability characteristics of retinal endothelial cells caused by elevated levels of growth factors, cytokines, advanced glycation end products, inflammation, hyperglycemia and loss of pericytes. Subsequently, paracellular but also transcellular transport across the retinal vascular wall increases via opening of endothelial intercellular junctions and qualitative and quantitative changes in endothelial caveolar transcellular transport, respectively. Functional changes in pericytes and astrocytes, as well as structural changes in the composition of the endothelial glycocalyx and the basal lamina around BRB endothelium further facilitate BRB leakage. As Starling's rules apply, active transcellular transport of plasma proteins by the BRB endothelial cells causing increased interstitial osmotic pressure is probably the main factor in the formation of macular edema. The understanding of the complex cellular and molecular processes involved in BRB leakage has grown rapidly in recent years. Although appropriate animal models for human conditions like diabetic macular edema are lacking, these insights have provided tools for rational design of drugs aimed at restoring the BRB as well as for design of effective transport of drugs across the BRB, to treat the chronic retinal diseases such as diabetic macular edema that affect the quality-of-life of millions of patients. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Van Geest R.J.,University of Amsterdam | Lesnik-Oberstein S.Y.,University of Amsterdam | Tan H.S.,University of Amsterdam | Mura M.,University of Amsterdam | And 5 more authors.
British Journal of Ophthalmology | Year: 2012

Introduction: In proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) may cause blindness by neovascularisation followed by fibrosis of the retina. It has previously been shown that a shift in the balance between levels of CTGF and VEGF in the eye is associated with this angiofibrotic switch. This study investigated whether anti-VEGF agents induce accelerated fibrosis in patients with PDR, as predicted by this model. Methods: CTGF and VEGF levels were measured by ELISA in 52 vitreous samples of PDR patients, of which 24 patients had received intravitreal bevacizumab 1 week to 3 months before vitrectomy, and were correlated with the degree of vitreoretinal fibrosis as determined clinically and intra-operatively. Results: CTGF correlated positively, and VEGF correlated negatively with the degree of fibrosis. The CTGF/VEGF ratio was the strongest predictor of fibrosis. Clinically, increased fibrosis was observed after intravitreal bevacizumab. Conclusions: These results confirm that the CTGF/VEGF ratio is a strong predictor of vitreoretinal fibrosis in PDR, and show that intravitreal anti-VEGF treatment causes increased fibrosis in PDR patients. These findings provide strong support for the model that the balance of CTGF and VEGF determines the angiofibrotic switch, and identify CTGF as a possible therapeutic target in the clinical management of PDR.

Corner M.,Netherlands Institute for Sea Research | Van Der Togt C.,Netherlands Institute for Neurosciences
Neuroscience Bulletin | Year: 2012

A comprehensive review is presented of reported aspects and putative mechanisms of sleep-like motility rhythms throughout the animal kingdom. It is proposed that 'rapid eye movement (REM) sleep' be regarded as a special case of a distinct but much broader category of behavior, 'rapid body movement (RBM) sleep', defined by intrinsicallygenerated and apparently non-purposive movements. Such a classification completes a 2 × 2 matrix defined by the axes sleep versus waking and active versus quiet. Although 'paradoxical' arousal of forebrain electrical activity is restricted to warm-blooded vertebrates, we urge that juvenile or even infantile stages of development be investigated in cold-blooded animals, in view of the many reports of REM-like spontaneous motility (RBMs) in a wide range of species during sleep. The neurophysiological bases for motorically active sleep at the brainstem level and for slow-wave sleep in the forebrain appear to be remarkably similar, and to be subserved in both cases by a primitive diffuse mode of neuronal organization. Thus, the spontaneous synchronous burst discharges which are characteristics of the sleeping brain can be readily simulated even by highly unstructured neural network models. Neuromotor discharges during active sleep appear to reflect a hierarchy of simple relaxation oscillation mechanisms, spanning a wide range of spike-dependent relaxation times, whereas the periodic alternation of active and quiet sleep states more likely results from the entrainment of intrinsic cellular rhythms and/or from activity-dependent homeostatic changes in network excitability. © 2012 Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences.

Schlingemann R.O.,University of Amsterdam | Schlingemann R.O.,Netherlands Institute for Neurosciences | Van Noorden C.J.F.,University of Amsterdam | Diekman M.J.M.,University of Amsterdam | And 4 more authors.
Diabetes Care | Year: 2013

OBJECTIVE - Increased levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in human plasma samples have suggested that circulating VEGF is a cause of endothelial dysfunction in diabetes mellitus. However, artificial release of VEGF from platelets as a source of VEGF in plasma samples, as also occurs in serum samples, has not been ruled out in these studies. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - We determined VEGF levels in plasma collected in both citrate and PECT, a medium that inactivates platelets, in a cross-sectional cohort of 21 healthy subjects and 64 patients with type 1 diabetes. In addition, we evaluated whether VEGF levels in both types of plasma correlated with the presence of diabetes, glycemic control, markers of in vivo or ex vivo platelet activation, and degree of diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy. RESULTS - VEGF levels were invariably low in PECT plasma of both nondiabetic and diabetic subjects and were unrelated to any other diabetes-related variable studied. In contrast, VEGF levels in citrate plasma were 150% higher in diabetic patients than in control subjects and correlated with diabetes-related variables. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that levels of platelet factor 4, a marker for ex vivo platelet activation, and HbA1c were the independent predictors of VEGF levels in citrate plasma. Platelet activation, in vivo and ex vivo, was similar in diabetic persons and control subjects. CONCLUSIONS - Like serum, citrate plasma is not suitable for reliable measurements of circulating VEGF. The low levels of VEGF in vivo, as represented by measurements in PECT plasma in our study, do not support a role of circulating VEGF in endothelial dysfunction in type 1 diabetes. Higher levels of VEGF in citrate plasma samples of diabetic persons do not represent the in vivo situation, but mainly originate from higher artificial ex vivo release from platelets correlating with the degree of glycemic control. © 2013 by the American Diabetes Association.

La Fleur S.E.,University Utrecht | La Fleur S.E.,University of Amsterdam | Luijendijk M.C.M.,University Utrecht | Van Rozen A.J.,University Utrecht | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Obesity | Year: 2011

Objectives:In diet-induced obesity, it is not clear whether impaired glucose metabolism is caused directly by the diet, or indirectly via obesity. This study examined the effects of different free-choice, high-caloric, obesity-inducing diets on glucose metabolism. In these free-choice diets, saturated fat and/or a 30% sugar solution are provided in an addition to normal chow pellets.Method:In the first experiment, male rats received a free-choice high-fat high-sugar (HFHS), free-choice high-fat (HF) or a chow diet. In a second experiment, male rats received a free-choice high-sugar (HS) diet or chow diet. For both experiments, after weeks 1 and 4, an intravenous glucose tolerance test was performed.Results:Both the HFHS and HF diets resulted in obesity with comparable plasma concentrations of free fatty acids. Interestingly, the HF diet did not affect glucose metabolism, whereas the HFHS diet resulted in hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and in glucose intolerance because of a diminished insulin response. Moreover, adiposity in rats on the HF diet correlated positively with the insulin response to the glucose load, whereas adiposity in rats on the HFHS diet showed a negative correlation. In addition, total caloric intake did not explain differences in glucose tolerance. To test whether sugar itself was crucial, we next performed a similar experiment in rats on the HS diet. Rats consumed three times as much sugar when compared with rats on the HFHS diet, which resulted in obesity with basal hyperinsulinemia. Glucose tolerance, however, was not affected.Conclusion: Together, these results suggest that not only obesity or total caloric intake, but the diet content also is crucial for the glucose intolerance that we observed in rats on the HFHS diet. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Allodi I.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Mecollari V.,Netherlands Institute for Neurosciences | Gonzalez-Perez F.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Eggers R.,Netherlands Institute for Neurosciences | And 6 more authors.
GLIA | Year: 2014

Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) is a trophic factor expressed by glial cells and different neuronal populations. Addition of FGF-2 to spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) explants demonstrated that FGF-2 specifically increases motor neuron axonal growth. To further explore the potential capability of FGF-2 to promote axon regeneration, we produced a lentiviral vector (LV) to overexpress FGF-2 (LV-FGF2) in the injured rat peripheral nerve. Cultured Schwann cells transduced with FGF-2 and added to collagen matrix embedding spinal cord or DRG explants significantly increased motor but not sensory neurite outgrowth. LV-FGF2 was as effective as direct addition of the trophic factor to promote motor axon growth in vitro. Direct injection of LV-FGF2 into the rat sciatic nerve resulted in increased expression of FGF-2, which was localized in the basal lamina of Schwann cells. To investigate the in vivo effect of FGF-2 overexpression on axonal regeneration after nerve injury, Schwann cells transduced with LV-FGF2 were grafted in a silicone tube used to repair the resected rat sciatic nerve. Electrophysiological tests conducted for up to 2 months after injury revealed accelerated and more marked reinnervation of hindlimb muscles in the animals treated with LV-FGF2, with an increase in the number of motor and sensory neurons that reached the distal tibial nerve at the end of follow-up. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Gad Elkareem A.M.,University of Amsterdam | Gad Elkareem A.M.,Center for Specialized Ophthalmology | Willikens B.,Netherlands Institute for Neurosciences | Stassen J.M.,ThromboGenics | De Smet M.D.,University of Amsterdam
Current Eye Research | Year: 2010

Purpose: Plasmin and microplasmin are related enzymes that differ mainly in size. The differential effect of plasmin and microplasmin on vitreous structure, protein degradation, and dye diffusion through porcine vitreous was evaluated. Methods: The enzymatic effect was examined using a number of approaches on fresh porcine eyes: (1) structural integrity of vitreous after a 2-hr incubation using the electron microscope (EM); (2) effect on soluble proteins within the vitreous using gel electrophoresis after incubation at various time points over a 24-hr period; (3) fluorescein dye diffusion within the vitreous cavity measured over a 1-hr period following a 2-hr incubation. The chosen enzymatic activities for plasmin 0.5 IU and microplasmin 125 g were within the clinical range, and were chosen for equipotence. A saline control was also used in all experiments. Results: Significant structural changes were seen with both microplasmin and plasmin when examined by EM. Gel electrophoresis showed that microplasmin and plasmin digested the same proteins, mainly molecular weights above 50kDa. The enzymatic effect was noticeable earlier in microplasmin-treated eyes and was more significant by the end of the incubation period. Differential fluorescein diffusion rates were seen between normal saline, plasmin, and microplasmin within the vitreous cavity. The greatest diffusion rate was seen with microplasmin and was statistically significantly higher than plasmin. Conclusion: Microplasmin and plasmin have a similar enzymatic effect on vitreous. However, an equipotent amount of microplasmin appears to have a more extended effect on vitreous gel. This may, in part, be related to its smaller size allowing it to diffuse more readily through the vitreous matrix.

Van Zijderveld R.,University of Amsterdam | Ince C.,University of Amsterdam | Schlingemann R.O.,University of Amsterdam | Schlingemann R.O.,Netherlands Institute for Neurosciences
Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology | Year: 2014

Purpose: Orthogonal polarization spectral (OPS) imaging is an optical imaging technique that uses a handheld microscope and green polarized light to visualize the red blood cells in the microcirculation of organ surfaces. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether OPS imaging can be used for the functional and morphological evaluation of microcirculation in the conjunctiva. Methods: To accomplish the aforementioned purpose, 21 eyes of 21 volunteer patients were examined. OPS images of the vasculature of the inferior conjunctiva and the nasal part of the bulbar conjunctiva were taken from each eye. The images were subsequently analyzed using a computer, and the following parameters were assessed: red blood cell velocity, blood vessel diameter, and functional capillary density. In addition, distinct qualitative aspects of the conjunctival microvasculature were characterized. Results: OPS imaging facilitated both the observation of red blood cells that were flowing through conjunctival vessels on a white background, and the measurement of other quantitative and qualitative microvascular parameters. Significant differences between several measures of the inferior and nasal bulbar conjunctival microcirculations were found, including differences in the configurations of the vessel segments, the number of vessel segments, the number of bifurcations, the mean diffusion distance, and the functional capillary density. Conclusions: OPS imaging can be used to measure the diameters of microvessels, functional capillary density, and other parameters. Significant differences between the microcirculations of the inferior conjunctiva and the nasal bulbar conjunctiva were found, which indicates the necessity of using a standardized approach to examine the conjunctival vasculature. OPS imaging is suitable for both the functional and morphological evaluation of the conjunctival microcirculation. © 2014 Springer-Verlag.

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