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The Hague, Netherlands

Slooten K.,Netherlands Forensic Institute
Forensic Science International: Genetics | Year: 2011

Disaster victim identification (DVI) can be aided by DNA-evidence, by comparing the DNA-profiles of unidentified individuals with those of surviving relatives. The DNA-evidence is used optimally when such a comparison is done by calculating the appropriate likelihood ratios. Though conceptually simple, the calculations can be quite involved, especially with large pedigrees, precise mutation models etc. In this article we describe a series of test cases designed to check if software designed to calculate such likelihood ratios computes them correctly. The cases include both simple and more complicated pedigrees, among which inbred ones. We show how to calculate the likelihood ratio numerically and algebraically, including a general mutation model and possibility of allelic dropout. In Appendix A we show how to derive such algebraic expressions mathematically. We have set up these cases to validate new software, called Bonaparte, which performs pedigree likelihood ratio calculations in a DVI context. Bonaparte has been developed by SNN Nijmegen (The Netherlands) for the Netherlands Forensic Institute (NFI). It is available free of charge for non-commercial purposes (see www.dnadvi.nl for details). Commercial licenses can also be obtained. The software uses Bayesian networks and the junction tree algorithm to perform its calculations. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Klaver C.,Netherlands Forensic Institute
Digital Investigation | Year: 2010

Windows CE (at this moment sold as Windows Mobile) is on the market for more than 10 years now. In the third quarter of 2009, Microsoft reached a market share of 8.8% of the more than 41 million mobile phones shipped worldwide in that quarter. This makes it a relevant subject for the forensic community. Most commercially available forensic tools supporting Windows CE deliver logical acquisition, yielding active data only. The possibilities for physical acquisition are increasing as some tool vendors are starting to implement forms of physical acquisition. This paper introduces the forensic application of freely available tools and describes how known methods of Physical Acquisition can be applied to Windows CE devices. Furthermore it introduces a method to investigate isolated Windows CE database volume files for both active and deleted data. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Sijen T.,Netherlands Forensic Institute
Forensic Science International: Genetics | Year: 2015

Abstract Human biological traces have the potential to present strong evidence for placing a suspect at a crime scene. In cases, the activity that led to deposition of an individual's cellular material is increasingly disputed, for which the identification of cell types could be crucial. This review aims to give an overview of the possibilities of the employment of mRNA, miRNA, DNA methylation and microbial markers for tissue identification in a forensic context. The biological background that renders these markers tissue-specificity is considered, as this can affect data interpretation. Furthermore, the forensic relevance of inferring certain cell types is discussed, as are the various methodologies that can be applied. Forensic stains can carry minute amounts of cell material that may be degraded or polluted and most likely cell material of multiple sources will be present. The interpretational challenges that are imposed by this compromised state will be discussed as well. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source


Gill P.,Norwegian Institute of Public Health | Gill P.,University of Oslo | Haned H.,Netherlands Forensic Institute
Forensic Science International: Genetics | Year: 2013

Although likelihood ratio (LR) based methods to analyse complex mixtures of two or more individuals, that exhibit the twin phenomena of drop-out and drop-in has been in the public domain for more than a decade, progress towards widespread implementation in to casework has been slow. The aim of this paper is to establish a LR-based framework using principles of the basic model recommended by the ISFG DNA commission. We use the tools in the form of open-source software (LRmix) in the Forensim package for the R software. A generalised set of guidelines has been prepared that can be used to evaluate any complex mixture. In addition, a validation framework has been proposed in order to evaluate LRs that are generated on a case-specific basis. This process is facilitated by replacing the reference profile of interest (typically the suspect's profile) with simulated random man using Monte-Carlo simulations and comparing the resulting distributions with the estimated LR. Validation is best carried out by comparison with a standard. Because LRmix is open-source we proposed that it is ideally positioned to be adopted as a standard basic model for complex DNA profile tests. This should not be confused with 'the best model' since it is clear that improvements could be made over time. Nevertheless, it is highly desirable to have a methodology in place that can show whether an improvement has been achieved should additional parameters, such as allele peak heights, are incorporated into the model. To facilitate comparative studies, we provide all of the necessary data for three test examples, presented as standard tests that can be utilised to carry out comparative studies. We envisage that the resource of standard test examples will be expanded over coming years so that a range of different case-types that are included will be used in order to improve the efficacy of models; to understand their advantages; conversely, to understand any limitations and to provide training material. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: NoE | Phase: SEC-2011.7.4-1 | Award Amount: 8.18M | Year: 2012

The EUROFORGEN-NoE proposal aims to develop a network of excellence for the creation of a European Virtual Centre of Forensic Genetic Research. Forensic genetics is a highly innovative field of applied science with a strong impact on the security of citizens. However, the genetic methods to identify offenders as well as the creation of national DNA databases have caused concerns to the possible violation of privacy rights. Furthermore, studies to assess the societal dimension of security following the implementation of even more intrusive methods such as the genetic prediction of externally visible characteristics are highly relevant for their public acceptance. The network includes some of the leading groups in European forensic genetic research. It aims to create a closer integration of existing collaborations, as well as establishing new interactions in the field of security, as all key players are addressed: scientists, stakeholders, end-users, educational centres and scientific societies. Only if a long-term collaborative network can be established it will become possible to connect all scientific groups active in the field of forensic genetics, and to initiate a sustained effort covering all aspects of research. These efforts have to be combined with identifying and selecting the most innovative ideas to meet the challenges of analyzing biological crime scene samples compromised by degradation or indentified as mixtures of traces from multiple human sources. The proposal integrates five working packages. WP 1 is devoted to management and coordination. WP 2 will lead the activities aimed at the creation of the virtual centre of research. WP 3 will carry out exemplar projects as models of collaboration and integration of cutting edge research, later complemented by a competitive call for new research projects. The societal dimension of security as well as the ethical and legal aspects wil be addressed in WP 4, whereas WP 5 is devoted to education and training.

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