Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority

Utrecht, Netherlands

Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority

Utrecht, Netherlands
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Mol H.G.J.,Wageningen University | MacDonald S.J.,Fera Science Ltd. | Anagnostopoulos C.,Benaki Phytopathological Institute | Spanjer M.,Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority | And 2 more authors.
World Mycotoxin Journal | Year: 2016

Based on the EFSA proposal 'Survey on sterigmatocystin in food' (GP/EFSA/CONTAM/2013/02), this study provides a survey on the occurrence of this mycotoxin. A total of 1,259 samples of cereal grains (429), cereal products (713), beer (53) and nuts (64) were analysed for the presence of sterigmatocystin (STC). Samples were mainly collected at processing plants, storage facilities, wholesale and retail between August 2013 and November 2014, in nine European countries, mostly Greece, Italy, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. The products originated from 27 European countries and 18 other countries. All samples were analysed by methods based on liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.5 μg/kg and the limit of detection (LOD) was in the range 0.05-0.15 μg/kg (0.005-0.01 μg/l for beer). Overall, STC was identified in 10% of the samples; it was not detected in either beer or nut samples. More than 50% of the contaminated samples contained levels between LOD and LOQ; in the other cases, levels were between 0.5-6 μg/kg with one exception (33 μg/kg in oats). In cereal grains, rice and oats seemed the cereals most prone to STC contamination (100% unprocessed rice, 22% oats grains); however the number of rice samples was limited (n=28) and the samples were collected almost exclusively in Italy and Greece. In cereal products, levels were lower than in cereal grains. The highest incidence was in processed rice (21%) and breakfast cereals (19%), while for the other cereal products this was between 5-7%. In the contaminated cereal products, rice and oats were often present as ingredients. © 2016 Wageningen Academic Publishers.

PubMed | Health Science University, University of South Australia, Tergooi, Copenhagen University and 11 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The British journal of nutrition | Year: 2015

Fruit and vegetable consumption produces changes in several biomarkers in blood. The present study aimed to examine the dose-response curve between fruit and vegetable consumption and carotenoid (-carotene, -carotene, -cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin), folate and vitamin C concentrations. Furthermore, a prediction model of fruit and vegetable intake based on these biomarkers and subject characteristics (i.e. age, sex, BMI and smoking status) was established. Data from twelve diet-controlled intervention studies were obtained to develop a prediction model for fruit and vegetable intake (including and excluding fruit and vegetable juices). The study population in the present individual participant data meta-analysis consisted of 526 men and women. Carotenoid, folate and vitamin C concentrations showed a positive relationship with fruit and vegetable intake. Measures of performance for the prediction model were calculated using cross-validation. For the prediction model of fruit, vegetable and juice intake, the root mean squared error (RMSE) was 258.0 g, the correlation between observed and predicted intake was 0.78 and the mean difference between observed and predicted intake was - 1.7 g (limits of agreement: - 466.3, 462.8 g). For the prediction of fruit and vegetable intake (excluding juices), the RMSE was 201.1 g, the correlation was 0.65 and the mean bias was 2.4 g (limits of agreement: -368.2, 373.0 g). The prediction models which include the biomarkers and subject characteristics may be used to estimate average intake at the group level and to investigate the ranking of individuals with regard to their intake of fruit and vegetables when validating questionnaires that measure intake.

PubMed | National Institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM, Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority and Central Veterinary Institute CVI of Wageningen UR
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy | Year: 2016

In 2005, 39% of pigs and 81% of the slaughter batches at Dutch slaughterhouses were MRSA positive. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether the 50% reduction of antimicrobial usage in finishing pigs in 2014 compared with 2009 in the Netherlands has led to a lower MRSA prevalence among Dutch slaughter pigs.Nasal swabs from eight slaughter batches of on average 10 animals at seven slaughterhouses were taken and cultured using method 1, which was used in 2005, and method 2, using high-salt pre-enrichment. Suspected isolates were confirmed by PCR for two Staphylococcus aureus-specific DNA fragments and the mecA gene. A subset of MRSA isolates were further investigated using spa typing, multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing.Using methods 1 and 2, we found 461 of 558 (83%) and 552 of 558 (99%) of the pigs to carry MRSA in their nares, respectively. All 56 slaughter batches were MRSA positive. All MRSA isolates belonged to the livestock-associated MLVA complex 398, had a non-WT phenotype for tetracycline and spa type t011 predominated.A very high prevalence of nasal MRSA carriage was found in Dutch slaughter pigs and therefore the reduction in antimicrobial usage at the national level has not yet had an effect on the MRSA carriage rate of pigs entering the slaughterhouse. Therefore, there is still an increased risk of MRSA carriage for personnel working at pig slaughterhouses, particularly those having contact with living animals. Method 2, using high salt pre-enrichment, detected more MRSA-positive pigs and is currently the preferred method for screening of MRSA in livestock in the Netherlands.

Elbers A.R.W.,Central Veterinary Institute | Loeffen W.L.A.,Central Veterinary Institute | Quak S.,Central Veterinary Institute | de Boer-Luijtze E.,Central Veterinary Institute | And 7 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2012

Infections with Schmallenberg virus (SBV) are associated with congenital malformations in ruminants. Because reporting of suspected cases only could underestimate the true rate of infection, we conducted a seroprevalence study in the Netherlands to detect past exposure to SBV among dairy cattle. A total of 1,123 serum samples collected from cattle during November 2011-January 2012 were tested for antibodies against SBV by using a virus neutralization test; seroprevalence was 72.5%. Seroprevalence was significantly higher in the central-eastern part of the Netherlands than in the northern and southern regions (p<0.001). In addition, high (70%-100%) within-herd seroprevalence was observed in 2 SBV-infected dairy herds and 2 SBV-infected sheep herds. No significant differences were found in age-specific prevalence of antibodies against SBV, which is an indication that SBV is newly arrived in the country.

PubMed | University Utrecht, Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority and Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research
Type: | Journal: Preventive veterinary medicine | Year: 2016

Although generally considered a rodent virus, pigs sometimes were suggested a potential reservoir host for encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), implying pig-to-pig transmission can cause major outbreaks in a pig population (basic reproduction ratio, R0>1). An earlier experimental study on EMCV transmission among pigs was inconclusive in this respect (R01.24; CI 0.4-4.4). In this study we used a simulation model to extrapolate the experimental results to commercial, compartmentalised pig housings and tested to what extend contacts between pigs in different pens needed to be reduced in order to prevent major outbreaks in a compartment following a single introduction. The final size of simulated outbreaks was measured and the probability to observe outbreaks that affected at least 50 or 80% of the pens was calculated. Simulation scenarios compare one homogeneously mixing compartment (no fence) to epidemiological theory and an increasing effect of fencing on the pig-to-pig transmission between pigs in neighbouring pens. For any R0<1.24 the probability to observe outbreaks affecting more than 50% of the pens remained below 10% if compartmentalisation was introduced leaving per capita transmission rate unchanged. If fences also reduced contact transmission the probability to observe major outbreaks was below 50% for any R0<2.7. Only for R0>4, major outbreaks occurred with more than 50% chance even if only minimal contact between adjacent pens was allowed. In conclusion the results suggested that in a compartmentalised pig housing one single EMCV introduction is unlikely to cause a major outbreak by direct pig-to-pig transmission alone. Other mechanisms e.g. multiple introductions from a rodent reservoir may be required for large outbreaks to occur.

PubMed | Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority and Center for Monitoring of Vectors
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of medical entomology | Year: 2015

Since 2009, The Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority carries out surveys focusing on, amongst others, the presence of invasive mosquito species (IMS). Special attention is given to exotic container-breeding Aedes species Aedes aegypti (L.), Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Aedes atropalpus (Coquillett), and Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald). This study describes the implementation of real-time PCR tests described by Hill etal. (2008) for the identification of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, and the development of two novel real-time PCR tests for the identification of Ae. atropalpus and Ae. j. japonicus. Initial test showed that optimization of elements of the Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus tests was needed. Method validation tests were performed to determine if the implemented and newly developed tests are fit for routine diagnostics. Performance criteria of analytical sensitivity, analytical specificity, selectivity, repeatability, and reproducibility were determined. In addition, experiments were performed to determine the influence of environmental conditions on the usability of DNA extracted from mosquito specimens trapped in BG-Sentinel traps. The real-time PCR tests were demonstrated to be sensitive, specific, repeatable, reproducible, and are less prone to false negative results compared to partial cytochrome c oxidase I gene sequencing owing to the DNA fragmentation caused by environmental influences.

Hordijk J.,University Utrecht | Hordijk J.,Central Veterinary Institute | Wagenaar J.A.,University Utrecht | Wagenaar J.A.,Central Veterinary Institute | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Objectives:The presence of ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli in cattle has been reported previously, however information on veal calves is limited. This study describes the prevalence and molecular characteristics of E. coli with non-wild type susceptibility to cefotaxime in veal calves at slaughter.Methods:Faecal samples from 100 herds, 10 individual animals per herd, were screened for E. coli with non-wild type susceptibility for cefotaxime. Molecular characterization of ESBL/AmpC genes and plasmids was performed on one isolate per herd by microarray, PCR and sequence analysis.Results:66% of the herds were positive for E. coli with non-wild type susceptibility for cefotaxime. Within-herd prevalence varied from zero to 90%. 83% of E. coli producing ESBL/AmpC carried blaCTX-M genes, of which blaCTX-M-1, blaCTX-M-14 and blaCTX-M-15 were most prevalent. The dominant plasmids were IncI1 and IncF-type plasmids.Conclusions:A relatively high prevalence of various blaCTX-M producing E. coli was found in veal calves at slaughter. The genes were mainly located on IncI1 and IncF plasmids. © 2013 Hordijk et al.

PubMed | Laboratory for Food and Feed Safety, Wageningen University and Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of food protection | Year: 2016

The emetic toxin cereulide, which can be produced by Bacillus cereus, can be the cause of food poisoning upon ingestion by the consumer. The toxin causes vomiting and is mainly produced in farinaceous food products. This article includes the prevalence of B. cereus and of cereulide in food products in The Netherlands, a characterization of B. cereus isolates obtained, cereulide production conditions, and a comparison of consumer exposure estimates with those of a previous exposure assessment. Food samples (n = 1,489) were tested for the presence of B. cereus; 5.4% of the samples contained detectable levels (>10(2) CFU/g), and 0.7% contained levels above 10(5) CFU/g. Samples (n = 3,008) also were tested for the presence of cereulide. Two samples (0.067%) contained detectable levels of cereulide at 3.2 and 5.4 g/kg of food product. Of the 481 tested isolates, 81 produced cereulide and/or contained the ces gene. None of the starch-positive and hbl-containing isolates possessed the ces gene, whereas all strains contained the nhe genes. Culture of emetic B. cereus under nonoptimal conditions revealed a delay in onset of cereulide production compared with culture under optimal conditions, and cereulide was produced in all cases when B. cereus cells had been in the stationary phase for some time. The prevalence of cereulide-contaminated food approached the prevalence of contaminated products estimated in an exposure assessment. The main food safety focus associated with this pathogen should be to prevent germination and growth of any B. cereus present in food products and thus prevent cereulide production in foods.

Nordkvist E.,National Veterinary Institute | Zuidema T.,Wageningen University | Herbes R.G.,Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority | Berendsen B.J.A.,Wageningen University
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2016

ABSTRACT: Two surveys are presented of straw analysed for naturally occurring chloramphenicol (CAP), a drug banned for use in food-producing animals. In the first study, CAP was analysed by LC-MS/MS and detected in 37 out of 105 straw samples originating from the Netherlands, France, the UK, Germany and Denmark. The highest level found was 6.3 µg kg−1, the average 0.6 µg kg−1 and the median 0.2 µg kg−1. The second study included a method comparison between ELISA and LC-MS/MS and a survey of CAP in cereal straw sampled at farms in all areas of Sweden. A total of 215 samples were screened by ELISA and a subset of 26 samples was also analysed by LC-MS/MS. Fifty-four of the samples contained more than 1 µg kg−1 CAP and the highest level found was 32 µg kg−1 (confirmed by LC-MS/MS). The highest contents of CAP in this study were allocated to the Baltic sea coast in the south-eastern part of Sweden (the county of Skåne and the Baltic Sea isle of Gotland). These results indicate a high incidence of CAP in straw in north-west Europe and have a severe impact on the enforcement of European Union legislation. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

van der Gaag D.J.,Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority | Loomans A.J.M.,Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority
EPPO Bulletin | Year: 2014

Anoplophora glabripennis (Asian longhorned beetle) attacks many different broadleaf tree species. Although there is no doubt that A. glabripennis can complete its life cycle on species belonging to various genera such as Acer, Populus, Salix and Ulmus, there is conflicting information about the host plant status of many other species. Plant species may have been listed because of maturation feeding or oviposition, without evidence that A. glabripennis can actually complete its life cycle on these species. In the present review, 34 plant taxa that have been listed as A. glabripennis-hosts are placed in four different categories based on information available through literature search and by personal communication with experts. The categories are: (I) plant species on which A. glabripennis has been reported to complete its life cycle (from oviposition to emergence of new beetles) under field conditions, (II) plant species on which A. glabripennis has completed its life cycle in laboratory or semi-field experiments (i.e. plants and beetles reared in cages), (III) plant species on which A. glabripennis has been reported to complete part of its life cycle, and (IV) others. The following genera were placed in category I: Acer, Aesculus, Betula, Cercidiphyllum, Fraxinus, Platanus, Populus, Salix and Ulmus. The species Albizia julibrissin, Corylus colurna, Elaeagnus angustifolia, Fagus sylvatica, Koelreuteria paniculata, Malus domestica, Pyrus bretschneideri and Sorbus aucuparia were also placed in category I, although records on exit holes were limited. These species may be rather poor or unattractive hosts on which A. glabripennis may only incidentally oviposit and/or complete its life cycle or the species may be rather uncommon in outbreak areas thus far and, therefore, not frequently attacked. Elaeagnus angustifolia has also been reported to be resistant. For some of the species listed the host plant status may need confirmation. The list of category I species may also become longer in the future because several of the plant species listed only recently appeared to be true hosts, i.e. supporting completion of the full life cycle of A. glabripennis. © 2014 OEPP/EPPO.

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