De Keyser C.E.,Erasmus Medical Center |
De Keyser C.E.,Drug Safety Unit |
Peters B.J.M.,University Utrecht |
Peters B.J.M.,St Antonius Hospital Nieuwegein |
And 11 more authors.
Pharmacogenetics and Genomics | Year: 2014
OBJECTIVE: The SLCO1B1 c.521T>C polymorphism is associated with statin plasma levels and simvastatin-induced adverse drug reactions. We studied whether the c.521T>C polymorphism is associated with dose decreases or switches to other cholesterol-lowering drugs during simvastatin and atorvastatin therapy, because these events are indicators of adverse drug reactions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified 1939 incident simvastatin and atorvastatin users in the Rotterdam Study, a population-based cohort study. Associations were studied using Cox proportional hazards analysis. Meta-analysis was performed with data from the Utrecht Cardiovascular Pharmacogenetics study. RESULTS: Simvastatin users with the c.521 CC genotype had a significantly higher risk of a dose decrease or switch than users with the TT genotype [hazard ratio (HR) 1.74, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-2.88]. Female sex, age below 70 years, and low starting dose were risk factors. In atorvastatin users with starting dose of more than 20 mg, the risk of a dose decrease or switch was higher in users carrying a C allele than in users with the TT genotype (HR 3.26, 95% CI 1.47-7.25). In the meta-analysis the association in simvastatin users remained, with a significantly higher risk of a dose decrease or switch in simvastatin users with two minor alleles (HR 1.69, 95% CI 1.05-2.73). For atorvastatin users no significant association was found. CONCLUSION: In simvastatin users in the Rotterdam Study, we demonstrated an association between the c.521T>C polymorphism and dose decrease or switching, as indicators of adverse drug reactions, and provided risk factors for this association. For atorvastatin, an association was found in users with a starting dose of more than 20 mg. © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Ruhaak L.R.,Leiden University |
Ruhaak L.R.,University of California at Davis |
Uh H.-W.,Leiden University |
Beekman M.,Leiden University |
And 7 more authors.
Journal of Proteome Research | Year: 2011
The development of medical interventions for the preservation of disease-free longevity would be facilitated by markers that predict healthy aging. Altered protein N-glycosylation patterns have been found with increasing age and several disease states. Here we investigate whether glycans derived from the total glycoprotein pool in plasma mark familial longevity and distinguish healthy from unhealthy aging. Total plasma N-glycan profiles of 2396 middle aged participants in the Leiden Longevity Study (LLS) were obtained by glycan release, labeling, and subsequent HPLC analysis with fluorescence detection. After normalization and batch correction, several regression strategies were applied to evaluate associations between glycan patterns, familial longevity, and healthy aging. Two N-glycan features (LC-7 and LC-8) were identified to be more abundant in plasma of the offspring of long-lived individuals as compared to controls. These results were not confounded by the altered lipid status or glucose homeostasis of the offspring. Furthermore, a decrease in levels of LC-8 was associated with the occurrence of myocardial infarction (p = 0.049, coefficient = -0.065), indicating that plasma glycosylation patterns do not only mark familial longevity but may also reflect healthy aging. In conclusion, we describe two glycan features, of which increased levels mark familial longevity and decreased levels of one of these features mark the presence of cardiovascular disease. © 2010 American Chemical Society.
Li M.,CAS Kunming Institute of Zoology |
Li M.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences |
Luo X.-J.,University of Rochester |
Rietschel M.,University of Heidelberg |
And 61 more authors.
Molecular Psychiatry | Year: 2014
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a polygenic disorder that shares substantial genetic risk factors with major depressive disorder (MDD). Genetic analyses have reported numerous BD susceptibility genes, while some variants, such as single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CACNA1C have been successfully replicated, many others have not and subsequently their effects on the intermediate phenotypes cannot be verified. Here, we studied the MDD-related gene CREB1 in a set of independent BD sample groups of European ancestry (a total of 64 888 subjects) and identified multiple SNPs significantly associated with BD (the most significant being SNP rs6785A, P=6.32 × 10 -5, odds ratio (OR)=1.090). Risk SNPs were then subjected to further analyses in healthy Europeans for intermediate phenotypes of BD, including hippocampal volume, hippocampal function and cognitive performance. Our results showed that the risk SNPs were significantly associated with hippocampal volume and hippocampal function, with the risk alleles showing a decreased hippocampal volume and diminished activation of the left hippocampus, adding further evidence for their involvement in BD susceptibility. We also found the risk SNPs were strongly associated with CREB1 expression in lymphoblastoid cells (P<0.005) and the prefrontal cortex (P<1.0 × 10 -6). Remarkably, population genetic analysis indicated that CREB1 displayed striking differences in allele frequencies between continental populations, and the risk alleles were completely absent in East Asian populations. We demonstrated that the regional prevalence of the CREB1 risk alleles in Europeans is likely caused by genetic hitchhiking due to natural selection acting on a nearby gene. Our results suggest that differential population histories due to natural selection on regional populations may lead to genetic heterogeneity of susceptibility to complex diseases, such as BD, and explain inconsistencies in detecting the genetic markers of these diseases among different ethnic populations. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.
Mihaescu R.,Erasmus Medical Center |
Van Zitteren M.,Erasmus Medical Center |
Van Hoek M.,Erasmus Medical Center |
Sijbrands E.J.G.,Netherlands Consortium of Healthy Aging |
And 9 more authors.
American Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2010
Reclassification is observed even when there is no or minimal improvement in the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), and it is unclear whether it indicates improved clinical utility. The authors investigated total reclassification, net reclassification improvement, and integrated discrimination improvement for different ΔAUC using empirical and simulated data. Empirical analyses compared prediction of type 2 diabetes risk based on age, sex, and body mass index with prediction updated with 18 established genetic risk factors. Simulated data were used to investigate measures of reclassification against ΔAUCs of 0.005, 0.05, and 0.10. Total reclassification and net reclassification improvement were calculated for all possible cutoff values. The AUC of type 2 diabetes risk prediction improved from 0.63 to 0.66 when 18 polymorphisms were added, whereas total reclassification ranged from 0% to 22.5% depending on the cutoff value chosen. In the simulation study, total reclassification, net reclassification improvement, and integrated discrimination improvement increased with higher ΔAUC. When ΔAUC was low (0.005), net reclassification improvement values were close to zero, integrated discrimination improvement was 0.08% (P > 0.05), but total reclassification ranged from 0 to 6.7%. Reclassification increases with increasing AUC but predominantly varies with the cutoff values chosen. Reclassification observed in the absence of AUC increase is unlikely to improve clinical utility. © 2010 The Author.
Van Dorp W.,Rotterdam University |
Van Den Heuvel-Eibrink M.M.,Rotterdam University |
Stolk L.,Rotterdam University |
Stolk L.,Netherlands Consortium of Healthy Aging |
And 5 more authors.
Human Reproduction | Year: 2013
STUDY QUESTION: Are genetic polymorphisms, previously identified as being associated with age at menopause in the healthy population, associated with ovarian reserve and predicted age at menopause in adult long-term survivors of childhood cancer?SUMMARY ANSWERThe CT genotype of rs1172822 in the BRSK1 gene is associated with lower serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels and a younger predicted age at menopause in adult survivors of childhood cancer.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYGonadotoxicity is a well-known late side effect of chemotherapy and radiotherapy in adult survivors of childhood cancer. In the healthy population, several genetic polymorphisms are associated with age at natural menopause. Currently, data on the impact of previously identified variants in gene loci associated with ovarian reserve in adult long-term survivors of childhood cancer are lacking.STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATIONWe performed a pilot study in a single-centre cohort of adult female Caucasian childhood cancer survivors (n = 176).PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODSWe determined serum AMH levels (a marker of ovarian reserve) in adult survivors of childhood cancer (n = 176) and studied single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously reported to be associated with age at natural menopause: BRSK1 (rs1172822), ARHGEF7 (rs7333181), MCM8 (rs236114), PCSK1 (rs271924), IGF2R (rs9457827) and TNF (rs909253). Association analysis was performed using the additive genetic model. Linear regression was conducted to assess the effect of significant polymorphisms in two previously published menopause prediction models. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: The CT genotype of rs1172822 in the BRSK1 (BR serine/threonine kinase 1) gene was negatively associated with serum AMH levels in our cohort (odds ratio: 3.15, 95% confidence interval: 1.35-7.32, P = 0.008) and significantly associated with the predicted age at menopause (P = 0.04). The other five SNPs were not associated with serum AMH levels. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: This is a pilot study showing preliminary data which must be confirmed. To confirm our findings and enlarge the project, a nationwide genome-wide association (GWA) project on the ovarian reserve in female survivors of childhood cancer should be performed, including a replication cohort. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Our findings support the hypothesis that previously identified genetic polymorphisms associated with age at menopause in healthy women may have an effect on the onset of menopause in female survivors of childhood cancer. Our study highlights a new aspect of the influences on the ovarian reserve after childhood cancer, which should be investigated further in a nationwide GWA study. Eventually, this information can help us to improve counselling on fertility preservation prior to cancer treatment based on genetic factors in individual patients.STUDY FUNDING AND CONFLICT OF INTERESTW.D. is supported by the Paediatric Oncology Centre Society for Research (KOCR), Rotterdam, The Netherlands. J.S.E.L. has received fees and grant support from the following companies (in alphabetic order): Ferring, Genovum, Merck-Serono, Organon, Schering Plough and Serono. All other authors have nothing to disclose. © 2013 The Author.
Rozing M.P.,Leiden University |
Westendorp R.G.J.,Leiden University |
Westendorp R.G.J.,Netherlands Consortium of Healthy Aging |
De Craen A.J.M.,Leiden University |
And 9 more authors.
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society | Year: 2010
OBJECTIVES: To explore measures of metabolic syndrome and glucose metabolism in families with exceptional longevity. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: A university hospital in Leiden, the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred twenty-one offspring of nonagenarian siblings, who were enriched for familial factors promoting longevity, and 113 of their partners. No subject had diabetes mellitus. MEASUREMENTS: Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was determined according to the criteria of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program. Glucose tolerance was assessed according to a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test. RESULTS: The offspring of nonagenarians siblings had a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome (P=.03), similar body composition, lower mean fasting blood glucose levels (4.99 vs 5.16 mmol/L; P=.01), lower mean fasting insulin levels (5.81 vs 6.75 mU/L; P=.04), a higher mean homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity (0.78 vs 0.65; P=.02), and a more-favorable glucose tolerance (mean area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for glucose (13.2 vs 14.3; P=.007) than their partners. No significant differences were observed between the offspring and their partners in β-cell function (insulogenic index 13.6 vs 12.5; P=.38). CONCLUSION: Despite similar body composition, the offspring of nonagenarian siblings showed a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome and better glucose tolerance than their partners, centralizing the role of favorable glucose metabolism in familial longevity. © 2010, Copyright the Authors.
He C.,Indiana University |
Chasman D.I.,Harvard University |
Dreyfus J.,Second Street |
Hwang S.-J.,U.S. National Institutes of Health |
And 28 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research | Year: 2012
Introduction: A younger age at menarche and an older age at menopause are well established risk factors for breast cancer. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified several novel genetic loci associated with these two traits. However, the association between these loci and breast cancer risk is unknown.Methods: In this study, we investigated 19 and 17 newly identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the ReproGen Consortium that have been associated with age at menarche and age at natural menopause, respectively, and assessed their associations with breast cancer risk in 6 population-based studies among up to 3,683 breast cancer cases and 34,174 controls in white women of European ancestry. In addition, we used these SNPs to calculate genetic risk scores (GRSs) based on their associations with each trait.Results: After adjusting for age and potential population stratification, two age at menarche associated SNPs (rs1079866 and rs7821178) and one age at natural menopause associated SNP (rs2517388) were associated with breast cancer risk (p values, 0.003, 0.009 and 0.023, respectively). The odds ratios for breast cancer corresponding to per-risk-allele were 1.14 (95% CI, 1.05 to 1.24), 1.08 (95% CI, 1.02 to 1.15) and 1.10 (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.20), respectively, and were in the direction predicted by their associations with age at menarche or age at natural menopause. These associations did not appear to be attenuated by further controlling for self-reported age at menarche, age at natural menopause, or known breast cancer susceptibility loci. Although we did not observe a statistically significant association between any GRS for reproductive aging and breast cancer risk, the 4 thand 5 thhighest quintiles of the younger age at menarche GRS had odds ratios of 1.14 (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.28) and 1.13 (95% CI, 1.00 to 1.27), respectively, compared to the lowest quintile.Conclusions: Our study suggests that three genetic variants, independent of their associations with age at menarche or age at natural menopause, were associated with breast cancer risk and may contribute modestly to breast cancer risk prediction; however, the combination of the 19 age at menarche or the 17 age at natural menopause associated SNPs did not appear to be useful for identifying a high risk subgroup for breast cancer. © 2011 He et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Ruhaak L.R.,Leiden University |
Koeleman C.A.M.,Leiden University |
Uh H.-W.,Leiden University |
Stam J.C.,University Utrecht |
And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013
Protein N-glycosylation patterns are known to show vast genetic as well as physiological and pathological variation and represent a large pool of potential biomarkers. Large-scale studies are needed for the identification and validation of biomarkers, and the analytical techniques required have recently been developed. Such methods have up to now mainly been applied to complex mixtures of glycoproteins in biofluids (e.g. plasma). Here, we analyzed N-glycosylation profiles of alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) and immunoglobulin A (IgA) enriched fractions by 96-well microtitration plate based high-throughput immuno-affinity capturing and N-glycan analysis using multiplexed capillary gel electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection (CGE-LIF). Human plasma samples were from the Leiden Longevity Study comprising 2415 participants of different chronological and biological ages. Glycosylation patterns of AAT enriched fractions were found to be associated with chronological (calendar) age and they differed between females and males. Moreover, several glycans in the AAT enriched fraction were associated with physiological parameters marking cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Pronounced differences were found between males and females in the glycosylation profiles of IgA enriched fractions. Our results demonstrate that large-scale immuno-affinity capturing of proteins from human plasma using a bead-based method combined with high-throughput N-glycan analysis is a powerful tool for the discovery of glycosylation-based biomarker candidates. © 2013 Ruhaak et al.
Bouwland-Both M.I.,Erasmus Medical Center |
Van Mil N.H.,Erasmus Medical Center |
Stolk L.,Erasmus Medical Center |
Stolk L.,Netherlands Consortium of Healthy Aging |
And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013
Changes in epigenetic programming of embryonic growth genes during pregnancy seem to affect fetal growth. Therefore, in a population-based prospective birth cohort in the Netherlands, we examined associations between fetal and infant growth and DNA methylation of IGF2DMR , H19 and MTHFR. For this study, we selected 69 case children born small-forgestational age (SGA, birth weight <-2SDS) and 471 control children. Fetal growth was assessed with serial ultrasound measurements. Information on birth outcomes was retrieved from medical records. Infant weight was assessed at three and six months. Methylation was assessed in DNA extracted from umbilical cord white blood cells. Analyses were performed using linear mixed models with DNA methylation as dependent variable. The DNA methylation levels of IGF2DMR and H19 in the control group were, median (90% range), 53.6% (44.5-61.6) and 30.0% (25.6-34.2) and in the SGA group 52.0% (43.9-60.9) and 30.5% (23.9-32.9), respectively. The MTHFR region was found to be hypomethylated with limited variability in the control and SGA group, 2.5% (1.4-4.0) and 2.4% (1.5-3.8), respectively. SGA was associated with lower IGF2DMR DNA methylation (β = -1.07, 95% CI -1.93; -0.21, P-value = 0.015), but not with H19 methylation. A weight gain in the first three months after birth was associated with lower IGF2DMR DNA methylation (β = -0.53, 95% CI -0.91; -0.16, P-value = 0.005). Genetic variants in the IGF2/H19 locus were associated with IGF2DMR DNA methylation (P-value<0.05), but not with H19 methylation. Furthermore, our results suggest a possibility of mediation of DNA methylation in the association between the genetic variants and SGA. To conclude, IGF2DMR and H19 DNA methylation is associated with fetal and infant growth. © 2013 Bouwland-Both et al.
A genetic risk score based on direct associations with coronary heart disease improves coronary heart disease risk prediction in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC), but not in the Rotterdam and Framingham Offspring, Studies
Brautbar A.,Marshfield Clinic |
Brautbar A.,Baylor College of Medicine |
Brautbar A.,Center for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention |
Pompeii L.A.,University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston |
And 23 more authors.
Atherosclerosis | Year: 2012
Objective: Multiple studies have identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with coronary heart disease (CHD). We examined whether SNPs selected based on predefined criteria will improve CHD risk prediction when added to traditional risk factors (TRFs). Methods: SNPs were selected from the literature based on association with CHD, lack of association with a known CHD risk factor, and successful replication. A genetic risk score (GRS) was constructed based on these SNPs. Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate CHD risk based on the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) and Framingham CHD risk scores with and without the GRS. Results: The GRS was associated with risk for CHD (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07-1.13). Addition of the GRS to the ARIC risk score significantly improved discrimination, reclassification, and calibration beyond that afforded by TRFs alone in non-Hispanic whites in the ARIC study. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) increased from 0.742 to 0.749 (Δ = 0.007; 95% CI, 0.004-0.013), and the net reclassification index (NRI) was 6.3%. Although the risk estimates for CHD in the Framingham Offspring (HR = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.10-1.14) and Rotterdam (HR = 1.08; 95% CI: 1.02-1.14) Studies were significantly improved by adding the GRS to TRFs, improvements in AUC and NRI were modest. Conclusion: Addition of a GRS based on direct associations with CHD to TRFs significantly improved discrimination and reclassification in white participants of the ARIC Study, with no significant improvement in the Rotterdam and Framingham Offspring Studies. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.