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Schouten P.C.,Netherlands Cancer Institute | Grigoriadis A.,Kings College London | Kuilman T.,Netherlands Cancer Institute | Mirza H.,Kings College London | And 27 more authors.
Molecular Oncology | Year: 2015

Breast cancers with BRCA1 germline mutation have a characteristic DNA copy number (CN) pattern. We developed a test that assigns CN profiles to be '. BRCA1-like' or 'non- BRCA1-like', which refers to resembling a BRCA1-mutated tumor or resembling a tumor without a BRCA1 mutation, respectively. Approximately one third of the BRCA1-like breast cancers have a BRCA1 mutation, one third has hypermethylation of the BRCA1 promoter and one third has an unknown reason for being BRCA1-like. This classification is indicative of patients' response to high dose alkylating and platinum containing chemotherapy regimens, which targets the inability of BRCA1 deficient cells to repair DNA double strand breaks. We investigated whether this classification can be reliably obtained with next generation sequencing and copy number platforms other than the bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH) on which it was originally developed.We investigated samples from 230 breast cancer patients for which a CN profile had been generated on two to five platforms, comprising low coverage CN sequencing, CN extraction from targeted sequencing panels (CopywriteR), Affymetrix SNP6.0, 135K/720K oligonucleotide aCGH, Affymetrix Oncoscan FFPE (MIP) technology, 3K BAC and 32K BAC aCGH. Pairwise comparison of genomic position-mapped profiles from the original aCGH platform and other platforms revealed concordance. For most cases, biological differences between samples exceeded the differences between platforms within one sample. We observed the same classification across different platforms in over 80% of the patients and kappa values of at least 0.36. Differential classification could be attributed to CN profiles that were not strongly associated to one class. In conclusion, we have shown that the genomic regions that define our BRCA1-like classifier are robustly measured by different CN profiling technologies, providing the possibility to retro- and prospectively investigate BRCA1-like classification across a wide range of CN platforms. © 2015 The Authors. Source


De Leng W.W.J.,University Utrecht | Gadellaa-Van Hooijdonk C.G.,Netherlands Center for Personalized Cancer Treatment | Gadellaa-Van Hooijdonk C.G.,University Utrecht | Barendregt-Smouter F.A.S.,Netherlands Center for Personalized Cancer Treatment | And 25 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Background Targeted Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) offers a way to implement testing of multiple genetic aberrations in diagnostic pathology practice, which is necessary for personalized cancer treatment. However, no standards regarding input material have been defined. This study therefore aimed to determine the effect of the type of input material (e.g. formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) versus fresh frozen (FF) tissue) on NGS derived results. Moreover, this study aimed to explore a standardized analysis pipeline to support consistent clinical decision-making. Method We used the Ion Torrent PGM sequencing platform in combination with the Ion AmpliSeq Cancer Hotspot Panel v2 to sequence frequently mutated regions in 50 cancer related genes, and validated the NGS detected variants in 250 FFPE samples using standard diagnostic assays. Next, 386 tumour samples were sequenced to explore the effect of input material on variant detection variables. For variant calling, Ion Torrent analysis software was supplemented with additional variant annotation and filtering. Results Both FFPE and FF tissue could be sequenced reliably with a sensitivity of 99.1%. Validation showed a 98.5%concordance between NGS and conventional sequencing techniques, where NGS provided both the advantage of low input DNA concentration and the detection of low-frequency variants. The reliability of mutation analysis could be further improved with manual inspection of sequence data. Conclusion Targeted NGS can be reliably implemented in cancer diagnostics using both FFPE and FF tissue when using appropriate analysis settings, even with low input DNA. © 2016 de Leng et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source


Hoogstraat M.,University Utrecht | Hoogstraat M.,Netherlands Center for Personalized Cancer Treatment | Gadellaa-van Hooijdonk C.G.,University Utrecht | Gadellaa-van Hooijdonk C.G.,Netherlands Center for Personalized Cancer Treatment | And 22 more authors.
Pigment Cell and Melanoma Research | Year: 2015

Summary: Resistance to treatment is the main problem of targeted treatment for cancer. We followed ten patients during treatment with vemurafenib, by three-dimensional imaging. In all patients, only a subset of lesions progressed. Next-generation DNA sequencing was performed on sequential biopsies in four patients to uncover mechanisms of resistance. In two patients, we identified mutations that explained resistance to vemurafenib; one of these patients had a secondary BRAF L505H mutation. This is the first observation of a secondary BRAF mutation in a vemurafenib-resistant patient-derived melanoma sample, which confirms the potential importance of the BRAF L505H mutation in the development of therapy resistance. Moreover, this study hints toward an important role for tumor heterogeneity in determining the outcome of targeted treatments. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source


Hoogstraat M.,University Utrecht | Hoogstraat M.,Netherlands Center for Personalized Cancer Treatment | De Pagter M.S.,University Utrecht | Cirkel G.A.,University Utrecht | And 23 more authors.
Genome Research | Year: 2014

Intra-tumor heterogeneity is a hallmark of many cancers and may lead to therapy resistance or interfere with personalized treatment strategies. Here, we combined topographic mapping of somatic breakpoints and transcriptional profiling to probe intra-tumor heterogeneity of treatment-naïve stage IIIC/IV epithelial ovarian cancer. We observed that most substantial differences in genomic rearrangement landscapes occurred between metastases in the omentum and peritoneum versus tumor sites in the ovaries. Several cancer genes such as NF1, CDKN2A, and FANCD2 were affected by lesion-specific breakpoints. Furthermore, the intra-tumor variability involved different mutational hallmarks including lesion-specific kataegis (local mutation shower coinciding with genomic breakpoints), rearrangement classes, and coding mutations. In one extreme case, we identified two independent TP53 mutations in ovary tumors and omentum/peritoneum metastases, respectively. Examination of gene expression dynamics revealed up-regulation of key cancer pathways including WNT, integrin, chemokine, and Hedgehog signaling in only subsets of tumor samples from the same patient. Finally, we took advantage of the multilevel tumor analysis to understand the effects of genomic breakpoints on qualitative and quantitative gene expression changes. We show that intra-tumor gene expression differences are caused by site-specific genomic alterations, including formation of in-frame fusion genes. These data highlight the plasticity of ovarian cancer genomes, which may contribute to their strong capacity to adapt to changing environmental conditions and give rise to the high rate of recurrent disease following standard treatment regimes. © 2014 Hansen et al. Source

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