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Vevey, Switzerland

Nestlé S.A. is a Swiss multinational food and beverage company headquartered in Vevey, Switzerland. It is the largest food company in the world measured by revenues.Nestlé’s products include baby food, bottled water, breakfast cereals, coffee and tea, confectionery, dairy products, ice cream, frozen food, pet foods, and snacks. Twenty-nine of Nestlé’s brands have annual sales of over CHF1 billion , including Nespresso, Nescafé, Kit Kat, Smarties, Nesquik, Stouffer’s, Vittel, and Maggi. Nestlé has 447 factories, operates in 194 countries, and employs around 333,000 people. It is one of the main shareholders of L’Oreal, the world’s largest cosmetics company.Nestlé was formed in 1905 by the merger of the Anglo-Swiss Milk Company, established in 1866 by brothers George Page and Charles Page, and Farine Lactée Henri Nestlé, founded in 1866 by Henri Nestlé. The company grew significantly during the First World War and again following the Second World War, expanding its offerings beyond its early condensed milk and infant formula products. The company has made a number of corporate acquisitions, including Crosse & Blackwell in 1950, Findus in 1963, Libby’s in 1971, Rowntree Mackintosh in 1988, and Gerber in 2007.Nestlé has a primary listing on the SIX Swiss Exchange and is a constituent of the Swiss Market Index. It has a secondary listing on Euronext. In 2011, Nestlé was listed No. 1 in the Fortune Global 500 as the world’s most profitable corporation. With a market capitalization of US$233 billion, Nestlé ranked No. 9 in the FT Global 500 2013. Wikipedia.

Dietary lycopene consists mostly of the (all-E) isomer. Upon absorption, (all-E) lycopene undergoes isomerisation into various (Z)-isomers. Because these isomers offer potentially better health benefits than the (all-E) isomer, the aim of the present study was to investigate if the profile of lycopene isomers in intestinal lipoproteins is affected by the profile of lycopene isomers in the meal and by the tomato preparation. Six postprandial, crossover tests were performed in healthy men. Three meals provided about 70 % of the lycopene as (Z)-isomers, either mainly as 5-(Z) or 13-(Z), or as a mixture of 9-(Z) and 13-(Z) lycopene, while three tomato preparations provided lycopene mainly as the (all-E) isomer. Consumption of the 5-(Z) lycopene-rich meal led to a high (60 %) proportion of this isomer in TAG-rich lipoproteins (TRL), indicating a good absorption and/or a low intestinal conversion of this isomer. By contrast, consumption of meals rich in 9-(Z) and 13-(Z) lycopene isomers resulted in a low level of these isomers but high amounts of the 5-(Z) and (all-E) isomers in TRL. This indicates that the 9-(Z) and 13-(Z) isomers were less absorbed or were converted into 5-(Z) and (all-E) isomers. Dietary (Z)-lycopene isomers were, therefore, differently isomerised and released in TRL during their intestinal absorption in men. Consuming the three meals rich in (all-E) lycopene resulted in similar proportions of lycopene isomers in TRL: 60 % (all-E), 20 % 5-(Z), 9 % 13-(Z), 2 % 9-(Z) and 9 % unidentified (Z)-isomers. These results show that the tomato preparation has no impact on the lycopene isomerisation occurring during absorption in humans. Source

The current status of phage therapy approaches is reviewed and possible hurdles to a practical medical application of bacteriophages in Western countries are identified as discussed at a recent EMBO meeting on "Viruses of Microbes" in Brussels. In view of the growing antibiotic resistance crisis, a coordinated effort by the public health sector is needed to evaluate the potential of phage therapy as an adjunct to antibiotics© 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source

Brussow H.,Nestle
Current Opinion in Microbiology | Year: 2013

In the reductionist era T-type coliphage research became one of the foundations for molecular biology. The technological progress in systems biology makes it now possible to study T-type phage-Escherichia coli interaction in the natural ecological niche, the gut of warm blooded animals. This development gives a second chance to phages as anti-microbial agents ('phage therapy'). Bacteria growing in biofilms are difficult to treat with antibiotics while many phages express naturally depolymerases which attack the polysaccharide matrix that enmesh bacteria in biofilms. Phages were already used successfully to reduce contamination levels with medical catheters and might likewise be of use against infections frequently forming bacterial biofilms. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Brussow H.,Nestle
Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2013

Food and nutrition have played a crucial role in biological evolution. Lactation in mammals was one key invention. A central role in milk is played by lactose, otherwise an exotic sugar in nature. Lactose digestion needs the induction of specialized gut enzymes. This enzyme is shut off in a precisely timed developmental step leading to lactose malabsorption promoting weaning in the young and ovulation in the mother. The lactose-lactase system could thus regulate optimal birth spacing in land mammals. The domestication of cattle promoted milk as a food item also for adult nutrition. This was only possible by two further key inventions: the concomitant domestication of lactic acid bacteria which ferment the non-digestible lactose to the easily absorbed lactic acid and the mutation to lactase persistence (LP) in adults from dairy societies. This mutation represents one of the strongest selected loci of the human genome. Since no crucial nutritional selective advantage is conferred by LP, its dominance might be the result of indirect effects like the spread of cattle pathogens into humans. Lactase is also temporarily lost in rotavirus and Escherichia coli childhood diarrhoea and persistent diarrhoea is consequently best treated with lactose-free diets. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology. Source

Nutten S.,Nestle
Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism | Year: 2015

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease posing a significant burden on health-care resources and patients' quality of life. It is a complex disease with a wide spectrum of clinical presentations and combinations of symptoms. AD affects up to 20% of children and up to 3% of adults; recent data show that its prevalence is still increasing, especially in low-income countries. First manifestations of AD usually appear early in life and often precede other allergic diseases such as asthma or allergic rhinitis. Individuals affected by AD usually have genetically determined risk factors affecting the skin barrier function or the immune system. However, genetic mutations alone might not be enough to cause clinical manifestations of AD, and it is merely the interaction of a dysfunctional epidermal barrier in genetically predisposed individuals with harmful effects of environmental agents which leads to the development of the disease. AD has been described as an allergic skin disease, but today, the contribution of allergic reactions to the initiation of AD is challenged, and it is proposed that allergy is rather a consequence of AD in subjects with a concomitant underlying atopic constitution. Treatment at best achieves symptom control rather than cure; there is thus a strong need to identify alternatives for disease prevention. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

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