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MADISON, WI, United States

Lee B.P.,Michigan Technological University | Messersmith P.B.,Nerites Corporation | Messersmith P.B.,Northwestern University | Israelachvili J.N.,University of California at Santa Barbara | Waite J.H.,University of California at Santa Barbara
Annual Review of Materials Research

Mussels attach to solid surfaces in the sea. Their adhesion must be rapid, strong, and tough, or else they will be dislodged and dashed to pieces by the next incoming wave. Given the dearth of synthetic adhesives for wet polar surfaces, much effort has been directed to characterizing and mimicking essential features of the adhesive chemistry practiced by mussels. Studies of these organisms have uncovered important adaptive strategies that help to circumvent the high dielectric and solvation properties of water that typically frustrate adhesion. In a chemical vein, the adhesive proteins of mussels are heavily decorated with Dopa, a catecholic functionality. Various synthetic polymers have been functionalized with catechols to provide diverse adhesive, sealant, coating, and anchoring properties, particularly for critical biomedical applications. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source

Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 99.98K | Year: 2008

DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Project Summary/Abstract Novel Polymer Coatings to Prevent Biofilms on Urinary Stents and Catheters Nearly all patients with indwelling urinary stents or catheters experience bacterial infections and pro blems with encrustation. For stents, these problems are so common and so severe that stents are replaced at least every six months. Considering that about 100 million urethral catheters and urinary stents are placed in patients each year, millions of devic e-associated infections occur annually. Biofilms formed on the surface of these urinary devices are the source of most infections and encrustations, because pathogenic bacteria thrive within the protective environment biofilms create. Biofilm formation sta rts within minutes of implantation when soluble proteins and other macromolecules from the urine non-specifically adsorb to the device surface. These macromolecules provide an anchor for pathogenic bacteria, which then recruit other bacteria. Eventually a colony of multiple pathogenic bacteria, protected by a slime layer of secreted exopolymers, develops. Many attempts have been made to combat bacterial infection and biofilm formation on urological devices, and have met with varied success. The pr oposed Phase I research is a new approach to prevent biofilm formation on urinary stents and catheters which exploits key components of the adhesive proteins that marine mussels secrete to tether themselves to underwater surfaces. This long-lasting, cost-e ffective approach is non-leaching (i.e. does not release any biocides or antibiotics), biocompatible, simple to process, and easy to apply to urinary device surfaces. The primary objectives of this research are to establish the feasibility of (1) c hemically synthesizing new antifouling polymers that are durable and long-lasting, (2) modifying the surfaces of urinary devices, and (3) preventing biofilm formation under static and dynamic conditions. In this Phase I study, we will establish the proof o f principle that the polymers described above will adsorb to and then inhibit bacterial attachment and encrustation on the types of materials used to manufacture urinary devices. Project Narrative Novel Polymer Coatings to Prevent Biofilms on Uri nary Stents and Catheters Urinary catheters and stents can be life-saving medical devices, but bacterial biofilm growth on the device can cause dangerous infections. Current methods to prevent biofilms are expensive, often ineffective, and can promote antibiotic resistance. Our proposed coating technology will, without antibiotics or biocides, potentially block biofilm formation reliably and inexpensively.

Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 116.31K | Year: 2008

DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): A hernia occurs when part of an internal organ bulges through a weak area of muscle, with most hernias occurring in the abdomen. Surgical hernia repair is one of the most commonly performed surgeries in the US. While us ing prosthetic mesh as a reinforcement has significantly improved surgical outcomes, the rate of hernia recurrence remains high (30-50%). Current prosthetic materials are associated with numerous complications, including increased risk of infection, prosth etic shrinkage and host-foreign body reactions, leading to a diminished postoperative patient quality of life. The recent introduction of various biologic prosthetic meshes derived from modified human or porcine tissue have demonstrated lower rates of infe ction as compared to their synthetic counterparts. Equally important, effective immobilization of the mesh against the abdominal wall is critical to hernia repair success. Currently, sutures and staples are used to hold synthetic and biologic meshes in pla ce, but these can be a source of nerve damage and chronic discomfort. Thus, there continues to be a need to develop alternative fixation methods that can effectively secure the mesh to the abdominal wall as well as improve long- term biocompatibility of th ese meshes. Marine mussels provided the inspiration for the new technology presented in this proposal. By releasing rapidly hardening, tightly binding adhesive proteins, marine mussels have the ability to anchor themselves to various surfaces in a wet, tur bulent, and saline environment. Both natural proteins and their synthetic mimics can bind strongly to various substrates ranging from biological tissues to metal surfaces. In this proposal, biomimetic synthetic adhesives will be combined with a natural sca ffold to create a novel bioadhesive prosthetic. The intent of such a construct is to create an effective repair with minimized long-term infection rate and chronic patient discomfort typically associated with permanent prosthetic materials. The feasibility of using such a material for hernia repair will be tested. PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE Bioadhesive Membrane Construct for Hernia Repair Hernia repair is one of the most frequently performed surgical procedures in the United States. Current repair methods and materials have exhibited mixed success, but each has limitations such as high recurrence rate and persistent patient discomfort. The development and evaluation of a novel bioadhesive membrane construct for hernia repair is described here.

Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 583.82K | Year: 2008

DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Copious amounts of water are used for rinsing and cooling purposes in restorative and surgical Dental procedures. Bacterial fouling due to biofilm formation in the Dental unit waterlines that deliver this water is a per sistent problem in clinical Dentistry and Dental surgery. Biofilm formation starts within minutes when soluble proteins and other macromolecules from the water non-specifically adsorb to the insides of the water lines. These macromolecules provide an ancho r for bacteria, which recruit other bacteria. Eventually a colony of multiple bacteria, protected by a slime layer of secreted exopolymers, develops. While the risk of bacterial infection is slight in most healthy patients, those patients with compromise d immune systems due to disease or drug therapy are at elevated risk. Additionally, Dental healthcare professionals are subjected to chronic exposure to contaminated water and aerosols generated from the Dental unit. Existing approaches to combat bacterial contamination and biofilm formation are typically ineffective in reducing bacterial counts to levels recommended by the American Dental Association. Finally, the majority of the existing approaches rely on healthcare workers to adhere to specific maintena nce schedules that, if not followed, render the approaches largely ineffective. New approaches to Dental waterline antifouling that would significantly reduce or eliminate the need for routine decontamination maintenance are of great interest to the Dental healthcare community. Surface coatings which repel bacterial attachment and biofilm formation on Dental waterlines would significantly reduce these health risks. If bacteria cannot attach to the surfaces of Dental waterlines, they will not be able to form biofilms to allow them to reproduce in large numbers and contaminate the water supply. Our Phase I research has firmly demonstrated feasibility for this type of approach. Development of these bacteria-resistant coatings will continue in Phase II with the refinement and optimization of the coating process. We will determine the biocompatibility and long-term efficacy of the coatings. Finally, we will assess the compatibility of these new coatings with existing DUWL treatments, and will explore potential rou tines for coating renewal. Copious amounts of water are used for rinsing and cooling purposes in restorative and surgical Dental procedures. Bacterial contamination of these water supplies is a chronic and serious problem. Coatings for waterlines that are designed to prevent bacterial growth would largely prevent this problem, reducing health-related risks to both patients and Dental care workers.

Nerites Corporation | Date: 2010-11-29

This invention is directed to a method to reduce microbial fouling on a surface. The present invention provides antifouling coatings similar to the protein glues secreted by marine mussels for adhesion to underwater substrates.

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