Time filter

Source Type

Gubbio, Italy

Adamu B.,Nephrology Unit
Annals of African Medicine | Year: 2013

Renal transplant is becoming increasingly available in developing countries. Significant advances have been made globally since the first successful kidney transplant in 1954, with the advent of newer, more effective and more selective immunosuppressants. As a result, allograft and patient survival has increased, leaving infection and malignancy as major challenges. The incidence rate of tuberculsis in renal transplant recipients is directly proportional to the prevalence in the general population with the developing countries having the highest rates. The objective of this paper is to review the existing literature on post renal transplant tuberculosis with a view to highlighting its peculiarities compared to tuberculosis in the general population. Several databases (Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane data base, Google Scholar and AJOL) were searched for articles using the key words Tuberculosis (MESH), Renal (OR Kidney), AND transplant. Hand search was also made of reference list of retrieved articles. Full text of relevant original articles were retrieved and appraised. Several studies have demonstrated increased risk of tuberculosis in renal transplant recipients, especially in developing countries. Tuberculosis in renal transplant recipients has peculiarities such as difficulty in diagnosing latent TB, atypical presentations, increased risk of dissemination, increased mortality and interactions of anti-Tb drugs with transplant medications. Clinicians managing renal transplant recipients especially in developing countries should have a high index of suspicion for TB and be aware of its peculiarities in this patient population. Source

Juxta-anastomotic stenosis (JAS) is a complication of arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs). Both surgical revision (SR) and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) may correct JAS. In this study we compare the results for SR treatment versus PTA. From January 2005 until December 2008, 66 PTA and 68 SR were performed in 43 and 57 uremic pts with JAS of the native AVF, respectively. Efficacy of SR and PTA was evaluated measuring brachial arterial flow (BAF) by CDU. The Kaplan-Meier table of primary and assisted primary patency was analyzed. PTA was attempted in 50 patients. PTA failed in 7 patients and they were switched to SR. In 43 pts, PTA produced a favorable effect, with a mean increase of 99 ± 70% (p<0.001) in blood flow. Restenosis occurred in 17 pts: 2 were treated by SR and 15 by PTA. Restenosis occurred again in 6/15 pts: after second restenosis, 5/6 pts received a third PTA with stenting, 1 patient underwent SR. The failure of access occurred after 12-17 months in 3 pts. In 57/57 JAS treated by SR, a new well-functioning fistula was created upstream of the stenosis, with a mean increase of 102 ± 71% in blood flow (p<0.001). Restenosis occurred in 15 pts: 9 were treated by SR and 6 by PTA. Access failure occurred after 3-36 months in 9 pts. The Kaplan-Meier table showed a better primary patency for SR (p<0.05) without difference in assisted primary patency. SR showed a better primary patency then PTA, confirming the trend to stenosis relapse after PTA. So, as PTA does not exclude a later correction of the JAS, the similar assisted patency suggests to perform a PTA first, reserving SR for after its failure. Source

Shroff R.,Nephrology Unit | Weaver Jr. D.J.,Levine Childrens Hospital at Carolinas Medical Center | Mitsnefes M.M.,Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center
Nature Reviews Nephrology | Year: 2011

The lifespan of children with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains low compared with the general pediatric population. As in adults with CKD, cardiovascular disease accounts for the majority of deaths in children with CKD, as these patients have a high prevalence of traditional and uremia-related risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The cardiovascular adaptations that precipitate these terminal events begin in predialysis CKD. Initially, these alterations increase left ventricular performance and vascular function to maintain hemodynamic homeostasis. However, these modifications are unable to sustain cardiovascular function in the long term and ultimately lead to left ventricular failure, impaired cardiorespiratory fitness and even sudden death. In this Review, we provide an update on the prevalence of the risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease in pediatric patients with CKD, the cardiac and vascular adaptations that occur in these patients and the management of cardiovascular risk in this population. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

Verani M.,University of Pisa | Bigazzi R.,Nephrology Unit | Carducci A.,University of Pisa
American Journal of Infection Control | Year: 2014

Background The airborne spreading of enteric viruses can occur through the aerosol and droplets produced by toilet flushing. These can contaminate the surrounding environment, but few data exist to estimate the risk of exposure and infection. For this reason environmental monitoring of air and selected surfaces was carried out in 2 toilets of an office building and in 3 toilets of a hospital before and after cleaning operations. Methods To reveal the presence of norovirus, enterovirus, rhinovirus, human rotavirus, and Torque teno virus and to quantify human adenovirus and bacteria counts, molecular and cultural methods were used. Results On the whole, viruses were detected on 78% of surfaces and in 81% of aerosol. Among the researched viruses, only human adenovirus and Torque teno virus were found in both surface and air samples. In several cases the same adenovirus strain was concurrently found in all matrices. Bacterial counts were unrelated to viral presence and cleaning did not seem to substantially reduce contamination. Conclusions The data collected in our study confirm that toilets are an important source of viral contamination, mainly in health care settings, where disinfection can have a crucial role in preventing virus spread. © 2014 Published by Elsevier Inc. Source

Jayasumana C.,Rajarata University | Gajanayake R.,Nephrology Unit | Siribaddana S.,Rajarata University
BMC Nephrology | Year: 2014

In a recent study published by the National Project team on chronic kidney diseases of unknown origin in Sri Lanka, we believe there to be flaws in the design, analysis, and conclusions, which should be discussed further. The authors wanted to emphasis Cadmium as the major risk factor for chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology in Sri Lanka while undermining the importance of Arsenic and nephrotoxic pesticides. To arrive at predetermined conclusions the authors appear have changed and misinterpreted their own results. The enormous pressure applied by the agrochemical industry on this issue may be a factor. Herein, we discuss these issues in greater detail. © 2014 Jayasumana et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Discover hidden collaborations