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San Paolo di Jesi, Italy

Coppo R.,Nephrology and Dialysis Unit | Feehally J.,University of Leicester | Glassock R.J.,University of California at Los Angeles
Kidney International | Year: 2010

On May 26-28, 2009, an international symposium on IgA nephropathy was convened in Stresa, Italy, as a Satellite Symposium of the World Congress of Nephrology held in Milan. This meeting was attended by a large number of scientists and clinicians working in the field of IgA nephropathy. The oral and poster presentations (over 70) ranged from very fundamental structural biology to clinical management. This article attempts to summarize the main findings of the meeting and to put forth some new perspectives and hypotheses regarding human IgA nephropathy on the 41st anniversary of its original description by Berger and Hinglais in 1968. © 2010 International Society of Nephrology.

Righetti M.,Nephrology and Dialysis Unit
Current Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2012

Cardio-renal-anemia syndrome is a combination of heart failure, kidney failure, and anemia. Many advanced chronic kidney disease patients have both anemia and chronic heart failure. They have often hyperhomocysteinemia, high dimethylarginine values and low erythropoietin levels. Nephrologists treat advanced chronic kidney disease patients with erythropoiesis stimulating agents to improve anemia, renal and heart disease. Erythropoiesis stimulating agents, though considered essential to improve anemia in chronic kidney disease patients, have shown no significant protective effect on cardiovascular disease when used in large clinical trials targeting normal hemoglobin levels. It is possible that the high amounts of these drugs, given to reach normal hemoglobin values, may have counterbalanced the positive effect on endothelium obtained with low doses. Many studies have shown that erythropoietin improves endothelial function in animals with high dimethylarginine levels, lowering asymmetric dimethylarginine and increasing nitric oxide synthesis. Advanced chronic kidney disease patients have also high homocysteine levels which further reduce endothelial function by increasing asymmetric dimethylarginine. Homocysteine-lowering vitamin B treatment has been associated to a significant reduction of cardiovascular disease in advanced chronic kidney disease patients. Low doses of epoetin and B vitamins may improve cardiovascular morbidity by reducing asymmetric dimethylarginine and by increasing nitric oxide synthase activity. This review analyses the interaction between erythropoietin, dimethylarginine and homocysteine, and their role in cardio-renal-anemia syndrome. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers.

Santoro A.,Dialysis and Hypertension Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria di Bologna | Mandreoli M.,Nephrology and Dialysis Unit
Kidney and Blood Pressure Research | Year: 2014

The pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in CKD differs subtly from that of non-CKD patients. As renal function declines, the role and impact of treating classical risk factors may change and diminish. However, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia and smoking cessation management should be optimized and may require multiple agents and approaches, particularly as CKD advances. Hypertension treatment would appear to be one management area in which performance is less than ideal. Moreover there are mechanisms and risk factors that are specific to CKD, capable of triggering a vascular pathology and that justify the surplus of CV morbidity in CKD patients and that require we consider CKD as a CV risk factor per se. In the initial stages of CKD it would be advisable to implement all the preventative measures to stem the onset of CV disease, whereas in the more advanced stages a multifactorial approach is likely to be necessary, as we have learned from the STENO-study within the diabetes. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Perego A.F.,Nephrology and Dialysis Unit
Blood Purification | Year: 2013

Adsorption is based on the attraction between the sorbent and the solute through hydrophobic interactions, ionic or electrostatic forces, hydrogen bonding or van der Waals forces. Adsorption is the adherence of molecules by the above-mentioned forces not only to the surface of the membrane but also to its interior. Since polymethylmethacrylate membranes have a much higher inside effective exchange surface than polysulfone membranes, these membranes are able to ensure a high level of adsorption, and therefore reduce the concentration of high-molecular-weight molecules and protein-bound uremic toxins. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Fusaro M.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Gallieni M.,Nephrology and Dialysis Unit | Jamal S.A.,University of Toronto
Kidney International | Year: 2014

Bone fractures in dialysis patients have been poorly studied in the past. Tentori et al. partially fill this gap, assessing the incidence of post-fracture morbidity and mortality in patients of the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS). A high frequency of fractures and increased adverse outcomes following a fracture were observed. The nephrology community should pay more attention to bone fractures in dialysis patients © 2013 International Society of Nephrology.

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