Kingswood, Australia
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Rajamani A.,Nepean Hospital
Critical Care and Resuscitation | Year: 2012

Two patients were admitted sequentially to a rural emergency department, then transferred to a tertiary intensive care unit, both with serious methanol poisoning from home-brewed alcohol. They were intubated, mechanically ventilated, and treated with intravenous and nasogastric ethanol and continuous venovenous haemodiafiltration. Although quite similar in presentation, metabolic complications and therapy, one patient became brain dead due to severe cerebral oedema, while the other was discharged without any significant complications. Their course highlights the importance of early treatment of non-ethanol alcohol poisoning.


McLean A.S.,Nepean Hospital | McLean A.S.,University of Sydney
Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2015

The development of Intensive Care Medicine as a recognizable branch of medicine has been underway for more than half a century, with delivery by a number of different service models. This delivery may be entirely by related medical specialties, such as anesthesiology or pulmonology; alternatively, it may be as a standalone-recognized specialty and frequently by a hybrid of these two extremes. A country may have a completely different delivery model from neighboring countries, and different models may exist within a single country. Debate about the most appropriate method of providing critical care services frequently centers around the training. However, an alternative perspective is that training regimes only follow on from another objective, namely to have Intensive Care Medicine represented in important forums by dedicated critical care physicians. A historical perspective of the development of critical care in two countries over a 40-year period is discussed, whereby a transition from a multiple specialty provision of critical care medicine to that of a single binational pathway occurred. The perceived advantages and disadvantages are outlined, offering insights into how possible future challenges in a highly complex medical specialty can be anticipated and strategies formulated. © 2015 by the Society of Critical Care Medicine and Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.


Dietz H.P.,Nepean Hospital
Nature Reviews Gastroenterology and Hepatology | Year: 2012

Female pelvic floor dysfunction encompasses a range of morbidities, including urinary incontinence, female pelvic organ prolapse, anal incontinence and obstructed defecation. Patients often present with symptoms covered by several specialties including gastroenterology, colorectal surgery, urology and gynecology. Imaging can therefore bring clinicians from multiple specialties together by revealing that we frequently deal with different aspects of one underlying problem or pathophysiological process. This article provides an interdisciplinary imaging perspective on the pelvic floor. Modern pelvic floor imaging comprises defecation proctography, translabial and endorectal ultrasound, and static and dynamic MRI. This Perspectives focuses on the potential use of translabial ultrasound, including 3D and 4D applications, for diagnosis of pelvic floor disorders. Over the next decade, pelvic floor imaging will most likely be integrated into mainstream diagnostics in obstetrics and gynecology and colorectal surgery. Using imaging to facilitate communication between different specialties has the potential to greatly improve the multidisciplinary management of complex pelvic floor disorders. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


McLean A.S.,Nepean Hospital | Huang S.J.,Nepean Hospital
Annals of Intensive Care | Year: 2012

Cardiac biomarkers (CB) were first developed for assisting the diagnosis of cardiac events, especially acute myocardial infarction. The discoveries of other CB, the better understanding of cardiac disease process and the advancement in detection technology has pushed the applications of CB beyond the 'diagnosis' boundary. Not only the measurements of CB are more sensitive, the applications have now covered staging of cardiac disease, timing of cardiac events and prognostication. Further, CB have made their way to the intensive care setting where their uses are not just confined to cardiac related areas. With the better understanding of the CB properties, CB can now help detecting various acute processes such as pulmonary embolism, sepsis-related myocardial depression, acute heart failure, renal failure and acute lung injury. This article discusses the properties and the uses of common CB, with special reference to the intensive care setting. The potential utility of "multimarkers" approach and microRNA as the future CB are also briefly discussed. © 2012 McLean and Huang.


Chen J.,Nepean Hospital | Eslick G.D.,University of Sydney | Weltman M.,Nepean Hospital
Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2014

Background Autoimmune hepatitis is an uncommon chronic progressive inflammatory disease of the liver, characterised by hypergammaglobulianemia, circulating autoantibodies, and interface hepatitis histologically. It is traditionally thought to be a disease of young women. However, recent epidemiological and retrospective studies suggest that it might be a disease predominantly of older women. Studies of AIH in elderly patients have been fairly limited. Aim To investigate the differences in the clinical presentations and the management of AIH in the elderly and the younger patients. Methods We conducted a search on MEDLINE (from 1946), PubMed (1946) and EMBASE (1949) through to November 2013 using the terms 'autoimmune hepatitis in the elderly', and the combinations of 'Autoimmune hepatitis' AND the following terms: 'elderly', 'aging', 'older patients', and 'older'. The reference lists of relevant articles were also searched for appropriate studies. Results A total of 1063 patients were identified with AIH in 10 retrospective studies. The definition of 'elderly' ranged from 60 to 65 years; 264 elderly and 592 younger patients were included for analysis. Elderly, 24.8%, were more likely to present asymptomatically, cirrhotic at presentation and HLA-DR4-positive. They are less likely to be HLA-DR3-positive and to relapse after treatment withdrawal after complete remission. Conclusions AIH is an important differential in elderly patients with cirrhosis or abnormal LFTs. Elderly are more likely to be cirrhotic and asymptomatic at presentation. Glucocorticoids use should be readily considered in the elderly patients as the current evidence suggests that they respond well to the therapy, with less relapse after treatment withdrawal. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Dietz H.P.,Nepean Hospital | Mann K.P.,University of Sydney
International Urogynecology Journal and Pelvic Floor Dysfunction | Year: 2014

Introduction and hypothesis: This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between symptoms of prolapse and International Continence Society Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (ICS POP-Q) measurements in order to establish optimal cutoffs for predicting prolapse symptoms using receiver operator characteristic (ROC) statistics. Methods: This was a retrospective study using 764 archived data sets of patients seen for symptoms of lower urinary tract and pelvic floor dysfunction between March 2011 and November 2012. Main outcome measure was symptoms of prolapse. Explanatory parameters were Ba, C, and Bp as defined by the ICS POP-Q. Patient age, body mass index (BMI), previous hysterectomy or incontinence/prolapse surgery, and vaginal parity were tested for a confounding effect on the relationship between ICS POP-Q measurements and symptoms of prolapse. Results: Optimal cutoffs for predicting prolapse symptoms were defined as follows: Ba = -0.5 (sensitivity 69 %, specificity 71 %), C =-5 (sensitivity 67 %, specificity 64 %), Bp = -0.5 (sensitivity 63 %, specificity 62 %). ROC statistics resulted in an area under the curve of 0.768 for Ba [confidence interval (CI) 0.729-0.807), for C of 0.724 (CI 0.672-0.776), and for Bp of 0.686 (CI 0.639-0.733). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the ICS POP-Q staging system requires revision. Prolapse of the anterior and posterior vaginal wall of < -1 should probably be regarded as normal. On the other hand, stage 1 uterine prolapse as currently defined seems highly relevant. © 2014 The International Urogynecological Association.


Dietz H.P.,Nepean Hospital
International Urogynecology Journal and Pelvic Floor Dysfunction | Year: 2011

Pelvic reconstructive surgeons have suspected for over a century that childbirth-related trauma plays a major role in the aetiology of female pelvic organ prolapse. Modern imaging has recently allowed us to define and reliably diagnose some of this trauma. As a result, imaging is becoming increasingly important, since it allows us to identify patients at high risk of recurrence, and to define underlying problems rather than just surface anatomy. Ultrasound is the most appropriate form of imaging in urogynecology for reasons of cost, access and performance, and due to the fact that it provides information in real time. I will outline the main uses of this technology in pelvic reconstructive surgery and focus on areas in which the benefit to patients and clinicians is most evident. I will also try and give a perspective for the next 5 years, to consider how imaging may transform the way we deal with pelvic floor disorders. © 2011 The International Urogynecological Association.


Dietz H.P.,Nepean Hospital
International Urogynecology Journal and Pelvic Floor Dysfunction | Year: 2011

There is increasing interest in imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance and ultrasound amongst pelvic floor surgeons, as evidenced by the number of workshops and conference presentations in this field. Ultrasound is employed more commonly, due to much lower costs, greater accessibility and practicability. Consequently, this review focuses on sonography. At this time, imaging is probably under-utilised in urogynaecology and female urology, although it has the potential to greatly benefit our patients. In this review, I will outline the main uses of imaging in the work-up of women with urinary incontinence, before and after treatment, and focus on areas in which this benefit to patients and clinicians is most evident. © 2011 The International Urogynecological Association.


Objective: This article provides a brief review of the practical implications of the current diagnostic conceptualisation of generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) and an update on its pharmacotherapy. Conclusions: The diagnostic criteria for GAD need to be refined, to better reflect its clinical features and to make GAD more clinically useful. Various pharmacological agents are effective for GAD and to some extent, allow a tailored treatment approach. In addition to effectiveness, the choice of medication is influenced by the speed of therapeutic action, tolerability and habit-forming properties.


McLean A.S.,Nepean Hospital
Critical Care | Year: 2016

Echocardiography is pivotal in the diagnosis and management of the shocked patient. Important characteristics in the setting of shock are that it is non-invasive and can be rapidly applied. In the acute situation a basic study often yields immediate results allowing for the initiation of therapy, while a follow-up advanced study brings the advantage of further refining the diagnosis and providing an in-depth hemodynamic assessment. Competency in basic critical care echocardiography is now regarded as a mandatory part of critical care training with clear guidelines available. The majority of pathologies found in shocked patients are readily identified using basic level 2D and M-mode echocardiography. A more comprehensive diagnosis can be achieved with advanced levels of competency, for which practice guidelines are also now available. Hemodynamic evaluation and ongoing monitoring are possible with advanced levels of competency, which includes the use of colour Doppler, spectral Doppler, and tissue Doppler imaging and occasionally the use of more recent technological advances such as 3D or speckled tracking. The four core types of shock-cardiogenic, hypovolemic, obstructive, and vasoplegic-can readily be identified by echocardiography. Even within each of the main headings contained in the shock classification, a variety of pathologies may be the cause and echocardiography will differentiate which of these is responsible. Increasingly, as a result of more complex and elderly patients, the shock may be multifactorial, such as a combination of cardiogenic and septic shock or hypovolemia and ventricular outflow obstruction. The diagnostic benefit of echocardiography in the shocked patient is obvious. The increasing prevalence of critical care physicians experienced in advanced techniques means echocardiography often supplants the need for more invasive hemodynamic assessment and monitoring in shock. © 2016 The Author(s).

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