Entity

Time filter

Source Type


Tielsch J.M.,George Washington University | Khatry S.K.,Nepal Nutrition Intervention Project Sarlahi | Shrestha L.,Tribhuvan University
BMC Public Health | Year: 2014

Background: Acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) are a leading cause of death among children. Low birthweight is prevalent in South Asia and associated with increased risks of mortality, and morbidity, high levels of indoor household air pollution caused by open burning of biomass fuels are common and associated with high rates of ALRI and low birthweight. Alternative stove designs that burn biomass fuel more efficiently have been proposed as one method for reducing these high exposures and lowering rates of these disorders. We designed two randomized trials to test this hypothesis. Methods/design: We conducted a pair of community-based, randomized trials of alternative cookstove installation in a rural district in southern Nepal. Phase one was a cluster randomized, modified step-wedge design using an alternative biomass stove with a chimney. A pre-installation period of morbidity assessment and household environmental assessment was conducted for six months in all households. This was followed by a one year step-wedge phase with 12 monthly steps for clusters of households to receive the alternative stove. The timing of alternative stove introduction was randomized. This step-wedge phase was followed in all households by another six month follow-up phase. Eligibility criteria for phase one included household informed consent, the presence of a married woman of reproductive age (15-30 yrs) or a child < 36 months. Children were followed until 36 months of age or the end of the trial. Pregnancies were identified and followed until completion or end of the trial. Phase two was an individually randomized trial of the same alternative biomass stove versus liquid propane gas stove in a subset of households that participated in phase one. Follow-up for phase two was 12 months following stove installation. Eligibility criteria included the same components as phase one except children were only enrolled for morbidity follow-up if they were less than 24 months. The primary outcomes included: incidence of ALRI in children and birthweight. Discussion: We presented the design and methods of two randomized trials of alternative cookstoves on rates of ALRI and birthweight. Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00786877, Nov. 5, 2008). © 2014 Schäfer et al. Source


Hughes M.M.,Johns Hopkins University | Katz J.,Johns Hopkins University | Mullany L.C.,Johns Hopkins University | Khatry S.K.,Nepal Nutrition Intervention Project Sarlahi | And 3 more authors.
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth | Year: 2014

Background: While seasonality of birth outcomes has been documented in a variety of settings, data from rural South Asia are lacking. We report a descriptive study of the seasonality of prematurity, low birth weight, small for gestational age, neonatal deaths, and stillbirths in the plains of Nepal.Methods: Using data collected prospectively during a randomized controlled trial of neonatal skin and umbilical cord cleansing with chlorhexidine, we analyzed a cohort of 23,662 babies born between September 2002 and January 2006. Project workers collected data on birth outcomes at the infant's household. Supplemental data from other studies conducted at the same field site are presented to provide context. 95% confidence intervals were constructed around monthly estimates to examine statistical significance of findings.Results: Month of birth was associated with higher risk for adverse outcomes (neonatal mortality, low birthweight, preterm, and small for gestational age), even when controlling for maternal characteristics. Infants had 87% (95% CI: 27 - 176%) increased risk of neonatal mortality when born in August, the high point, versus March, the low point.Conclusion: Seasonality of neonatal deaths, stillbirths, birth weight, gestational age, and small for gestational age were found in Nepal. Maternal factors, meteorological conditions, infectious diseases, and nutritional status may be associated with these adverse birth outcomes. Further research is needed to understand the causal mechanisms that explain the seasonality of adverse birth outcomes. © 2014 Hughes et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Lee A.C.C.,Johns Hopkins University | Lee A.C.C.,Brigham and Womens Hospital | Mullany L.C.,Johns Hopkins University | Tielsch J.M.,Johns Hopkins University | And 5 more authors.
Pediatrics | Year: 2011

OBJECTIVES: To characterize the incidence of, risk factors for, and neonatal morbidity and mortality associated with respiratory depression at birth and neonatal encephalopathy (NE) among term infants in a developing country. METHODS: Data were collected prospectively in 2002-2006 during a community-based trial that enrolled 23 662 newborns in rural Nepal and evaluated the impact of umbilical-cord and skin cleansing on neonatal morbidity and mortality rates. Respiratory depression at birth and NE were defined on the basis of symptoms from maternal reports and study-worker observations during home visits. RESULTS: Respiratory depression at birth was reported for 19.7% of live births, and 79% of cases involved term infants without congenital anomalies. Among newborns with probable intrapartum-related respiratory depression (N = 3465), 112 (3%) died before their first home visit (presumed severe NE), and 178 (5%) eventually developed symptoms of NE. Overall, 629 term infants developed NE (28.1 cases per 1000 live births); 2% of cases were associated with congenital anomalies, 25% with infections, and 28% with a potential intrapartum event. The incidence of intrapartum-related NE was 13.0 cases per 1000 live births; the neonatal case fatality rate was 46%. Infants with NE more frequently experienced birth complications and were male, of multiple gestation, or born to nulliparous mothers. CONCLUSIONS: In Sarlahi, the incidence of neonatal respiratory depression and NE, associated neonatal case fatality, and morbidity prevalence are high. Action is required to increase coverage of skilled obstetric/neonatal care in this setting and to evaluate long-term impairments. Copyright © 2011 by the American Academy of Pediatrics. Source


Khatry S.K.,Nepal Nutrition Intervention Project Sarlahi | StewartParul C.P.,University of California at Davis
Nutrients | Year: 2014

Little attention has been given to the association of plasma homocysteine (Hcy) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in children. We have evaluated the risk of MetS with plasma Hcy in a cohort of 6 to 8 year old rural Nepalese children, born to mothers who had participated in an antenatal micronutrient supplementation trial. We assessed Hcy in plasma from a random selection of n = 1000 children and determined the relationship of elevated Hcy (>12.0 μmol/L) to MetS (defined as the presence of any three of the following: abdominal adiposity (waist circumference ≥ 85th percentile of the study population), high plasma glucose (≥85th percentile), high systolic or diastolic blood pressure (≥90th percentile of reference population), triglyceride ≥ 1.7 mmol/L and high density lipoprotein < 0.9 mmol/L.) and its components. There was an increased risk of low high-density lipoproteins (HDL), [odds ratios (OR) = 1.77, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.08-2.88; p = 0.020], high blood pressure [OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.10-2.46; p = 0.015] and high body mass index (BMI) [OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.33-2.96; p = 0.001] with elevated Hcy. We observed an increased risk of MetS (OR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.06-2.90; p = 0.029) with elevated Hcy in age and gender-adjusted logistic regression models. High plasma Hcy is associated with increased risk of MetS and may have implications for chronic disease later in life. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source


Checkley W.,Johns Hopkins University | West Jr. K.P.,Johns Hopkins University | Wise R.A.,Johns Hopkins University | Baldwin M.R.,Johns Hopkins University | And 7 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2010

Background: Vitamin A is important in regulating early lung development and alveolar formation. Maternal vitamin A status may be an important determinant of embryonic alveolar formation, and vitamin A deficiency in a mother during pregnancy could have lasting adverse effects on the lung health of her offspring. We tested this hypothesis by examining the long-term effects of supplementation with vitamin A or beta carotene in women before, during, and after pregnancy on the lung function of their offspring, in a population with chronic vitamin A deficiency. Methods: We examined a cohort of rural Nepali children 9 to 13 years of age whose mothers had participated in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, cluster-randomized trial of vitamin A or beta-carotene supplementation between 1994 and 1997. Results: Of 1894 children who were alive at the end of the original trial, 1658 (88%) were eligible to participate in the follow-up trial. We performed spirometry in 1371 of the children (83% of those eligible) between October 2006 and March 2008. Children whose mothers had received vitamin A had a forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and a forced vital capacity (FVC) that were significantly higher than those of children whose mothers had received placebo (FEV1, 46 ml higher with vitamin A; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6 to 86; FVC, 46 ml higher with vitamin A; 95% CI, 8 to 84), after adjustment for height, age, sex, body-mass index, calendar month, caste, and individual spirometer used. Children whose mothers had received beta carotene had adjusted FEV1 and FVC values that were similar to those of children whose mothers had received placebo (FEV1, 14 ml higher with beta carotene; 95% CI, -24 to 54; FVC, 17 ml higher with beta carotene, 95% CI, -21 to 55). Conclusions: In a chronically undernourished population, maternal repletion with vitamin A at recommended dietary levels before, during, and after pregnancy improved lung function in offspring. This public health benefit was apparent in the preadolescent years. Copyright © 2010 Massachusetts Medical Society. All rights reserved. Source

Discover hidden collaborations