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Cedamon E.,University of Adelaide | Nuberg I.,University of Adelaide | Pandit B.H.,Nepal Agroforestry Foundation | Shrestha K.K.,University of New South Wales
Agroforestry Systems | Year: 2017

Farmers in Nepal mid-hills have practiced agroforestry for generations as main source or supplement of timber, firewood and fodder from government forests. The nature and extent of agroforestry practice is being challenged by rapid social and economic change particularly in the recent rise of labour out-migration and remittance income. Understanding is required of the critical factors that influence farmers in the way they adapt agroforestry to their circumstances. This paper analyses the relationship of households’ livelihood resources and agroforestry practice to identify trajectories of agroforestry adaptation to improve livelihood outcomes. Using data from a survey of 668 households, it was found that landholding, livestock holding and geographic location of farmers are key drivers for agroforestry adaptation. A multinomial logistic regression model showed that in addition to these variables, household income, household-remittance situation (whether the household is receiving remittance or not) and caste influence adaptation of agroforestry practice. The analysis indicates that resource-poor households are more likely to adapt to terraced-based agroforestry while resource-rich households adapt to woodlot agroforestry. Appropriate agroforestry interventions are: (1) develop simple silvicultural regimes to improve the quality and productivity of naturally-regenerating timber on under-utilised land; (2) develop a suite of tree and groundcover species that can be readily integrated within existing terrace-riser agroforestry practices; (3) acknowledge the different livelihood capitals of resource-poor and resource-rich groups and promote terrace-riser and woodlot agroforestry systems respectively to these groups; and (4) develop high-value fodder production systems on terrace-riser agroforestry, and also for non-arable land. The analysis generates important insights for improving agroforestry policies and practices in Nepal and in many developing countries. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht


Webb E.L.,National University of Singapore | Dhakal A.,Nepal Agroforestry Foundation
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2011

The majority of residents in the rural Middle Hills of Nepal use fuelwood from public and private sources as their primary energy source. This study investigated fuelwood availability in accessed forests, amount of fuelwood collected, preferred tree species for fuelwood, contribution of public and private sources to total fuelwood consumption, and investment in tree planting on agricultural land. Fuelwood availability declined in the decades prior to 1990, but stabilized by 1990. Fuelwood from fifty-three species was collected from forests. Median annual per capita collection was 683 kg and predicted only by family size. Occupational castes ('low castes') did not show different harvesting rates than non-occupational castes and non-caste ethnic groups. Wealth was not associated with total fuelwood collection, probably because there was no fuelwood market. Most households collected fuelwood from a private source, namely trees planted on sloping, rain-fed agricultural land (bari), but this accounted for only a small portion of most households' requirement. Bari landholding area and livestock holdings-typical measures of wealth-drove the decision to plant trees on bari land, and the number of trees that were planted. Bari-poor and landless households were consequently the most vulnerable to forest degradation, so the promotion of private fuelwood planting by large bari landholders could reduce pressure on forests and promote greater fuelwood availability for landless households. Support of community forestry emphasizing access for bari-poor and landless families could further decrease fuelwood vulnerability of poorer households. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Pandit B.H.,Nepal Agroforestry Foundation | Neupane R.P.,Nepal Agroforestry Foundation | Sitaula B.K.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Bajracharya R.M.,Kathmandu University
Small-scale Forestry | Year: 2013

In view of the heavy people's dependence (80 %) on various forms of land-based resources, carbon sequestration should not only be targeted in forests, but also on private land agroforestry. A survey was conducted in 2011 to investigate the gap in contribution of agroforestry carbon to the household economy in the middle hills region of Rasuwa district of Nepal. A total of 120 households were randomly selected and surveyed, of which eight were further examined for detailed tree carbon measurement. It is estimated that a total of 48.60 ton C per hectare has been stocked in agroforestry sites in the middle hills region. Assuming a carbon price of $US12/ton, the total potential income from carbon sequestration per household would amount to NPR 45,490/ha in 20 years of agroforestry if a payment scheme were introduced. The income from carbon sequestration is quite low compared with other agroforestry income. Policy implications are thus oriented towards farmers reaping multiple benefits from the existing international mechanisms by having negotiations based on contribution of all agroforestry components (farm trees, crops and animals) rather than limited to forest carbon stock. To benefit from these multiple functions of farms and forests, the policy framework to address the climate-related affects and risks (e.g., of landslides, burst of Himalayan lakes) should be broad enough to produce potential synergy between the negative effect of climate change and agroforestry income. © 2012 Steve Harrison, John Herbohn.


Regmi B.N.,Nepal Agroforestry Foundation | Garforth C.,University of Reading
Agroforestry Systems | Year: 2010

Trees outside forests (TOF) in Nepal's Terai have significantly increased over the past decade. The Chitwan District was one of the focus districts in the Terai Community Forestry Development Project that promoted a tree seedling distribution program. This paper examines the current position of tree integration on farmland and its contribution to livelihoods of rural households in this district. Interviews with local key informants, government and non-government agencies and wood-based industries, as well as an in-depth study of 32 households were used to describe the constraints faced by the households in management of trees on farmland. Most households cited disease, poor growth, lack of preferred tree species, lack of technical support, an uncertain tree market, and lack of financial support as constraints. Despite the important role of trees in subsistence and market-based rural livelihood diversification, and the consequent reduction in pressure on national forests from on-farm trees, current government policies and practices fail to recognise the value of these trees. It is argued that there is substantial potential for improving on-farm trees to enhance rural livelihoods. A responsive service mechanism centred on tree growing households would help the management of tree resources on the farmland. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

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