Nepal Agriculture Research Council

Kathmandu, Nepal

Nepal Agriculture Research Council

Kathmandu, Nepal
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Chaulagain B.,University of Florida | Chhetri G.B.K.,Tribhuvan University | Shrestha S.M.,Tribhuvan University | Sharma S.,Nepal Agriculture Research Council | Lamichhane J.R.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Journal of General Plant Pathology | Year: 2017

Wheat yellow rust (WYR), caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (PST), is a major disease of wheat, and deployment of a single cultivar often leads to disease epidemics. Effect of inoculum level, foliar fungicide spray, and wheat cultivar mixtures were evaluated on disease development in the field and greenhouse in Nepal. Treatments were arranged in a split–split plot design with three replications in both experiments. Two inoculum levels of PST (low and high) were main plot factors; nontreated control and foliar spray of fungicides (Mancozeb and Bayleton) were subplot factors; and two-component cultivar mixtures, composed of different ratios of a susceptible (S) and a resistant (R) cultivars (90:10, 80:20, and 50:50, 100:0, and 0:100) were sub–subplot factors. WYR severity was assessed at different time intervals, and disease development was calculated as area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC). Inoculum level did not cause significant differences in AUDPC in the field but did in the greenhouse. Foliar spray of fungicides reduced the AUDPC in the greenhouse and field. In both experiments, AUDPC values were low in cultivar mixtures compared with a pure stand of a susceptible cultivar. As the proportion of resistant cultivar increased compared with the susceptible cultivar in the S:R mixture component, disease severity decreased with a consequent increase in grain yield. The greater yield obtained with cultivar mixtures compared with only the susceptible cultivar, independent of inoculum level and fungicide spray in the field, revealed a promising strategy to manage WYR in Nepal. © 2017 The Phytopathological Society of Japan and Springer Japan


Tamrakar S.,Kyushu University | Nishida M.,Kyushu University | Amen Y.,Kyushu University | Tran H.B.,Kyushu University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Wood Science | Year: 2017

The present study aims to reveal the antibacterial potential of the wild mushrooms of Nepal. Despite the recognition of the medicinal potential of the natural resources in this country, a systematic study on the bioactivities of the wild mushrooms is still lacking. Therefore, in an attempt to fill this gap, ethanol extracts of 90 Nepalese wild mushroom samples were tested for antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Propionibacterium acnes. Staphylococcus aureus was comparatively more susceptible with Inonotus clemensiae exhibiting the least minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 100 μg/mL. The major compound in I. clemensiae was identified to be hispidin using high resolution liquid chromatography–electron spray ionization mass spectrometry (LC–ESI-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses. Furthermore, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and MBC values of hispidin were determined to be 25 and 100 µg/mL for S. aureus and P. acnes, respectively. These findings show that the Nepalese wild mushrooms have the potential to be a novel addition to the functional ingredients industry due to their strong antibacterial potential. © 2017 The Japan Wood Research Society


Kalauni S.,Tribhuvan University | Shrestha R.K.,Tribhuvan University | Ojha R.B.,Nepal Agriculture Research Council | Santosh K.C.,Tribhuvan University
International Journal of Soil Science | Year: 2016

Background and Objective: Nitrogen (N) is one of the most important elements for plants. Moreover, N is the most dynamic and vulnerable element. Managing N is therefore very crucial in agriculture. Various studies have been carried on the influence of yield and yield attributes of maize at different N levels. Very few studies carried out on rooting architecture. So, this study aims to understand the rooting behavior of maize and to identify efficient cultivars that perform better under N stress condition. Materials and Methods: A pot culture experiment was conducted at Lamjung district of Nepal situated at subtropical condition. Two levels of N (0 and 80 kg haG1 N) were applied to five varieties (most promising variety) of maize viz., Deuti, Manakamana-3, QPM (Quality protein maize), Arun-2 and Rampur composite in randomized completely block design. Pot media was calculated on mass basis and required nutrients except N was placed at sufficient moisture level. Different root parameters were taken and two-way ANOVA was analyzed by using software MStat-C. The Ms-Excel 2007 was used to make graphs and figures. Results: Results showed that effect of nitrogen was significant for all the root traits except total root length and seminal root length. Interaction between N and variety was significant for root dry matter, number of seminal and crown roots and crown root length. At low N, QPM produced the maximum root dry matter, Deuti with the greatest number of seminal roots, Manakamana-3 with the maximum crown root length and Rampur composite with the highest number of crown roots. Conclusion: Under nitrogen stress condition, the physical parameters of roots perform better than sufficient level of nitrogen. It doesnʼt mean the increment in nutrient uptake efficiency in N stress condition. It requires further understanding. Rather, rooting behavior under N stressed condition varies with variety distinctly. The QPM producing the maximum root dry matter at low N and the minimum value at high N and is more tolerant and highly susceptible respectively than other variety. Rooting behavior not only influenced by soil aggregation and physical properties of soil but also with nutrient concentration. Further study is necessary to understand the nutrient uptake behavior in nutrient stress condition. © 2016 S. Kalauni et al.


Tiwari T.P.,CIMMYT Office Bangladesh | Ortiz-Ferrara G.,CIMMYT South Asia Regional Office | Gurung D.B.,Nepal Agriculture Research Council | Dhakal R.,Nepal Agriculture Research Council | And 4 more authors.
Food Security | Year: 2010

This is a follow-up study of two previous papers in this series in which we discussed the effectiveness of participatory varietal selection (PVS) and community-based seed production (CBSP). In this paper we present from survey results the impact of new, improved varieties on food security of farmers who had previously participated in PVS or CBSP, or both. A total of 230 households from eight locations, representing different social classes (A, B, C), castes (Dalit, Janajati, BCTN; referring to Bahun, Chhetry, Thakuri and Newar) and gender (male- or female-headed households) were randomly surveyed to assess changes in household food security after the adoption of improved varieties. Use of improved varieties, on average, increased production by 50%, compared to the existing local cultivars (2. 4 t ha-1) and this was reflected in the improvement of food security by 1. 6 months (24% increase) in the year for all farmers. Food security for male-headed households increased from 7. 4 to 9. 1 months and for female-headed households from 6. 4 to 7. 9 months (by 23% in both). The average food security of all castes improved by 23%-31% but the increased food availability of the underprivileged castes of Dalits (from 5. 1 to 6. 4 months) and Janjati (from 5. 8 to 7. 6 months) from lower food security levels is more important than that for BCTN (from 7. 5 to 9. 2 months). Similarly, food deficit households (C and B) had higher food availability over the food surplus households (A). The results indicate that the targeted participatory approach can reverse the findings of past maize research and development efforts which benefited only the elite farmers. © 2010 Springer Science + Business Media B.V. & International Society for Plant Pathology.


Hai Bang T.,Kyushu University | Hai Bang T.,Hue University | Suhara H.,Miyazaki Prefectural Wood Utilization Research Center | Doi K.,Kyushu University | And 10 more authors.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2014

Twenty-nine mushrooms collected in the mountainous areas of Nepal were analyzed for antioxidant activity by different methods, including Folin-Ciocalteu, ORAC, ABTS, and DPPH assays. Intracellular H2O 2-scavenging activity was also performed on HaCaT cells. The results showed that phenolic compounds are the main antioxidant of the mushrooms. Among studied samples, Inonotus andersonii, and Phellinus gilvus exhibited very high antioxidant activity with the phenolic contents up to 310.8 and 258.7 mg GAE/g extracts, respectively. The H2O2-scavenging assay on cells also revealed the potential of these mushrooms in the prevention of oxidative stress. In term of ACE-inhibition, results showed that Phlebia tremellosa would be a novel and promising candidate for antihypertensive studies. This mushroom exhibited even higher in vitro ACE-inhibition activity than Ganoderma lingzhi, with the IC50 values of the two mushrooms being 32 g/mL and 2 g/mL, respectively. This is the first time biological activities of mushrooms collected in Nepal were reported. Information from this study should be a valuable reference for future studies on antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory activities of mushrooms. © 2014 Tran Hai Bang et al.


Pask A.,CIMMYT Int. Apdo. Postal 6 641 | Joshi A.K.,CIMMYT South Asia Regional Office | Manes Y.,CIMMYT Int. Apdo. Postal 6 641 | Sharma I.,Directorate of Wheat Research | And 16 more authors.
Field Crops Research | Year: 2014

South Asia, which is already home to more than one fifth of the world's population and rapidly growing, will require wheat yields to rise annually by 2.0 to 2.5% to meet demand and maintain food security. To address these challenges, a wheat phenotyping network was established in the region in 2009 to support national breeding programs by applying practical phenotyping techniques to increase selection success using a cooperative multi-location testing network. A number of trials have been grown to introduce new genetic diversity for stress adaptive traits, to establish their genetic bases, and to test a new generation of lines developed using physiological approaches. The 17th Semi-Arid Wheat Yield Trial (SAWYT), consisting of a group of 50 elite spring bread wheat advanced lines, bred in Mexico using both conventional (CON) and physiological trait (PT) approaches, was grown for two seasons 2009/10 and 2010/11. Data showed that PT lines gave superior yields overall, associated with higher grain weight, and with cooler vegetative and grain-filling canopy temperatures (CT); the CT trait is considered indicative of increased gas exchange, a likely consequence in these environments of superior vascular capacity including deeper rooting to access subsoil water. Local check genotypes, which were generally well adapted to the stressed environments tended to be 3-5 days earlier to heading than CIMMYT cultivars. Results demonstrate the potential to integrate physiological breeding approaches into genetic improvement for the region, particularly as future wheat production will take place under increasing water scarcity. © 2014 Elsevier B.V..


Pask A.,CIMMYT Int. | Joshi A.K.,CIMMYT South Asia Regional Office | Manes Y.,CIMMYT Int. | Sharma I.,Directorate of Wheat Research | And 16 more authors.
Field Crops Research | Year: 2015

South Asia, which is already home to more than one-fifth of the world's population and rapidly growing, will require wheat yields to rise annually by 2.0-2.5% to meet demand and maintain food security. To address these challenges, a wheat phenotyping network was established in the region in 2009 to support national breeding programs by applying practical phenotyping techniques to increase selection success using a cooperative multi-location testing network. A number of trials have been grown to introduce new genetic diversity for stress adaptive traits, to establish their genetic bases, and to test a new generation of lines developed using physiological approaches. The 17th Semi-Arid Wheat Yield Trial (SAWYT), consisting of a group of 50 elite spring bread wheat advanced lines, bred in Mexico using both conventional (CON) and physiological trait (PT) approaches, was grown for two seasons 2009/10 and 2010/11. Data showed that PT lines gave superior yields overall, associated with higher grain weight, and with cooler vegetative and grain-filling canopy temperatures (CT); the CT trait is considered indicative of increased gas exchange, a likely consequence in these environments of superior vascular capacity including deeper rooting to access subsoil water. Local check genotypes, which were generally well adapted to the stressed environments tended to be 3-5 days earlier to heading than CIMMYT cultivars. Results demonstrate the potential to integrate physiological breeding approaches into genetic improvement for the region, particularly as future wheat production will take place under increasing water scarcity. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Mondal S.,International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center | Singh R.P.,International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center | Crossa J.,International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center | Huerta-Espino J.,International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center | And 12 more authors.
Field Crops Research | Year: 2013

High temperatures are a primary concern for wheat production in South Asia. A trial was conducted to evaluate the grain yield performance of high yielding, early maturing heat tolerant CIMMYT wheat lines, developed recently in Mexico for adaptation to high temperature stresses in South Asia. The trial, comprised of 28 entries and two checks, was grown in 13 locations across South Asia and two environments in Mexico. Each location was classified by mega environment (ME); ME1 being the temperate irrigated locations with terminal high temperature stress, and ME5 as warm, tropical, irrigated locations. Grain yield (GY), thousand kernel weight (TKW), days to heading (DH) and plant height (PH) were recorded at each location. Canopy temperature (CT) was also measured at some locations. Significant differences were observed between ME for DH, PH, GY, and TKW. The cooler ME1 locations had a mean DH of 83 days, compared to 68 days mean DH in ME5. The ME1 locations had higher mean GY of 5.26 t/ha and TKW of 41.8. g compared to 3.63 t/ha and 37.4. g, respectively, for ME5. Early heading entries (<79 days, mean DH) performed better across all locations, with GY of 2-11% above the local checks and 40-44. g TKW. Across all locations the top five highest yielding entries had 5-11% higher GY than the local checks. The early maturing CIMMYT check 'Baj' also performed well across all locations. In the Mexico location, CT was associated with GY, thereby suggesting that cooler canopies may contribute to higher GY under normal as well as high temperature stress conditions. Our results suggest that the early maturing, high yielding, and heat tolerant wheat lines developed in Mexico can adapt to the diverse heat stressed areas of South Asia. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | Miyazaki Prefectural Wood Utilization Research Center, Kyushu University and Nepal Agriculture Research Council
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of natural medicines | Year: 2016

Mushrooms have garnered immense popularity for their nutritional as well as medicinal values. The therapeutic potential of mushrooms in Nepal, a country well known for its biodiversity and natural medicinal resources, remains largely unstudied. Therefore, this study attempts to unveil the antioxidative properties of Nepalese wild mushrooms. Sixty-two wild mushroom samples were collected from several forests in different parts of Nepal. Ethanol and water extracts of the dried samples were tested for their antioxidative activities using total phenolic content (TPC), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), and reducing power (RP) assays. Ethanol extracts of samples belonging to the order Hymenochaetales showed significantly high activity in all the assays. Inonotus clemensiae had an exceptionally high TPC of 643.2mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g extract and also exhibited the lowest EC50 values in DPPH (0.081mg/mL), ABTS (0.409mg/mL), and EC0.5 value in reducing power (RP; 0.031mg/mL) assays. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the top ten samples with the highest TPC was done to identify the phenolic compounds in the extracts, followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis for some unknown compounds. These findings highlight the very strong antioxidative activity of Nepalese mushrooms, and paves the way for further research to explore their economic potential.


Shrestha S.L.,Kangwon National University | Shrestha S.L.,Nepal Agriculture Research Council | Luitel B.P.,Kangwon National University | Luitel B.P.,Nepal Agriculture Research Council | Kang W.H.,Kangwon National University
Horticulture Environment and Biotechnology | Year: 2011

This study was conducted in sweet pepper 'Boogie' to produce the haploids and diploids via anther culture, and to characterize their plant and fruit characters. Anthers were cultured on Dumas de Vaulx medium, (C-medium) supplemented with 0.1 mg·L-1 kinetin and 0.1 mg·L-1 2, 4-D, and 3% sucrose and 0. 32% phytagel. Cultures were first incubated in dark at 35°C for one week and then transferred at 25°C under 16 h photoperiod for 40 days. Regenerated plantlets including haploids and diploids were evaluated for their plant and fruit characters at Hwacheon in spring, 2007. Results revealed that 39.6 % callus was formed in total anthers (6100) whereas only 1.78% plants were regenerated among them. Ploidy analysis showed that 78. 1% regenerants were diploids. Haploid plants were characterized by short plant height, narrow leaf size, short internode length, small flower bud size, and small fruit with low volume than diploid plants. Average fruit volume measured in diploids was 62.7% higher than haploids. Variation in plant and fruit characters was observed within the diploid population and pepper breeder could utilize such variation in breeding program. Based on this characterization and compared to original cultivar, SP94, SP117, SP148, SP171 and SP174 are found superior diploid lines and recommended them to evaluate for variety improvement in sweet pepper. © 2011 Korean Society for Horticultural Science.

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