Neotropical Primate Conservation

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Neotropical Primate Conservation

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Shanee N.,Neotropical Primate Conservation | Shanee S.,Neotropical Primate Conservation | Horwich R.H.,Community Conservation
ORYX | Year: 2015

Amazonas and San Martin are two of the most densely populated regions in rural Peru and have some of the highest deforestation rates in the country. They are also home to many threatened and endemic species and are considered a high priority for conservation. Under Peruvian law individuals and community groups can create private conservation areas and conservation concessions, and we evaluated the successes and challenges experienced in the creation and management of such areas, using direct observation, questionnaires and key-informant interviews. Our results show that far from being a problem for conservation many rural communities are actively promoting or participating in conservation initiatives on a local scale with landscape-level impacts. These initiatives include land protection, hunting control and reduced deforestation, thus providing effective solutions to threats. The main obstacles we identified in relation to such campesino (peasant farmer) conservation initiatives were the lack of access to support from governmental and non-governmental institutions and to economic resources to fund the extensive bureaucratic processes of registering protected areas. Many campesino communities bypass these restrictions through informal conservation initiatives. Copyright © Fauna & Flora International 2014.


PubMed | Leibniz Institute For Primatenforschung, Naturhistorisches Museum Bern, Federal University of Sergipe, University of Western Australia and 22 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Science advances | Year: 2017

Nonhuman primates, our closest biological relatives, play important roles in the livelihoods, cultures, and religions of many societies and offer unique insights into human evolution, biology, behavior, and the threat of emerging diseases. They are an essential component of tropical biodiversity, contributing to forest regeneration and ecosystem health. Current information shows the existence of 504 species in 79 genera distributed in the Neotropics, mainland Africa, Madagascar, and Asia. Alarmingly, ~60% of primate species are now threatened with extinction and ~75% have declining populations. This situation is the result of escalating anthropogenic pressures on primates and their habitats-mainly global and local market demands, leading to extensive habitat loss through the expansion of industrial agriculture, large-scale cattle ranching, logging, oil and gas drilling, mining, dam building, and the construction of new road networks in primate range regions. Other important drivers are increased bushmeat hunting and the illegal trade of primates as pets and primate body parts, along with emerging threats, such as climate change and anthroponotic diseases. Often, these pressures act in synergy, exacerbating primate population declines. Given that primate range regions overlap extensively with a large, and rapidly growing, human population characterized by high levels of poverty, global attention is needed immediately to reverse the looming risk of primate extinctions and to attend to local human needs in sustainable ways. Raising global scientific and public awareness of the plight of the worlds primates and the costs of their loss to ecosystem health and human society is imperative.


Shanee S.,Neotropical Primate Conservation | Tello-Alvarado J.C.,Proyecto Mono Tocon | Tello-Alvarado J.C.,National University of San Martín of Peru | Vermeer J.,Proyecto Mono Tocon | Boveda-Penalba A.J.,Proyecto Mono Tocon
Primate Conservation | Year: 2013

We conducted a predictive GIS (Geographical Information System) analysis to create a realistic Habitat Suitability Model (HSM) and risk analysis throughout the distribution of the Andean titi monkey (Callicebus oenanthe) in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the current protected area (PA) network. This was done to help current conservation work and aid in the planning and implementation of future initiatives. Little was known about this species until recently. Callicebus oenanthe is listed as Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. It is endemic to San Martín region, northeastern Peru. Our results show that the extent of habitat available for this species may be greater than previously thought but that habitat loss in the region is extremely high. GAP analysis indicates that the current protected area network is ineffective in protecting this species, and new reserve areas are urgently needed. We recommend further study into the species' ecology to better understand its needs and to aid in future conservation work.


PubMed | AMPA Amazonicos por la Amazonia, Proyecto Mono Tocon, Neotropical Primate Conservation and Asociacion Neotropical Primate Conservation Peru
Type: | Journal: Primates; journal of primatology | Year: 2016

The San Martin titi monkey (Plecturocebus oenanthe) is endemic to a small area of northern Peru and is considered Critically Endangered on the IUCN due to massive habitat loss. Between 1994 and 2005 small scale reforestation efforts in the 23.5ha area of Pucunucho have led to the recuperation of habitat from an area of pasture and crop lands. The first record of P. oenanthe re-establishment in the area is from 2010, although re-establishment probably began earlier. We carried out short population surveys using triangulation to monitor densities of P. oenanthe in Pucunucho in 2011, 2012 and 2016. We estimate the current population of P. oenanthe in this area at 27 individuals, giving population densities of 35 groups/km


Di Fiore A.,New York University | Di Fiore A.,University of Texas at Austin | Chaves P.B.,New York University | Chaves P.B.,University of Texas at Austin | And 9 more authors.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2015

Using complete mitochondrial genome sequences, we provide the first molecular analysis of the phylogenetic position of the yellow-tailed woolly monkey, Lagothrix flavicauda (a.k.a. Oreonax flavicauda), a critically endangered neotropical primate endemic to northern Perú. The taxonomic status and phylogenetic position of yellow-tailed woolly monkeys have been debated for many years, but in this study both Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic reconstructions unequivocally support a monophyletic woolly monkey clade that includes L. flavicauda as the basal taxon within the radiation. Bayesian dating analyses using several alternative calibrations suggest that the divergence of yellow-tailed woolly monkeys from other Lagothrix occurred in the Pleistocene, ~2.1. Ma, roughly 6.5 my after the divergence of woolly monkeys from their sister genus, Brachyteles. Additionally, comparative analysis of the cytochrome oxidase subunit 2 (. COX2) gene shows that genetic distances between yellow-tailed woolly monkeys and other Lagothrix from across the genus' geographic distribution fall well within the range of between-species divergences seen in a large number of other platyrrhine primate genera at the same locus and outside the range of between-genus divergences. Our results thus confirm a position within Lagothrix for the yellow-tailed woolly monkey and strongly suggest that the name Oreonax be formally considered a synonym for this genus. This revision in taxonomic status does not change the dire conservation threats facing the yellow-tailed woolly monkey in Perú, where the remaining wild population is estimated at only ~10,000 individuals living in a highly fragmented landscape. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Shanee S.,Neotropical Primate Conservation | Shanee N.,Neotropical Primate Conservation | Shanee N.,University of Kent
International Journal of Primatology | Year: 2011

The critically endangered yellow tailed woolly monkeys (Oreonax flavicauda, Humboldt 1812) are endemic to the cloud forests of northeastern Peru. We surveyed populations of Oreonax flavicauda in the Centro Poblado La Esperanza, Amazonas department between May 2008 and March 2009. We conducted census work in an area comprising disturbed primary cloud forest interspersed with pasture lying between 3 protected areas, all of which are known to contain populations of Oreonax flavicauda. We used standardized line transect methodology to census an area of ca. 700 ha. We also recorded group size and composition. We compared the results of transect width estimation, Krebs' method, and an ad libitum total group count. We calculated individual densities of 8.27/km2 and 9.26/km2, and group densities of 0.93/km2 and 1.04/km2 using Krebs' method and transect width estimation, respectively. Average group size was 8.9, with 1-3 adult males, 1-6 adult females, and 0-6 juveniles and infants. The results from our transect surveys coincided well with our estimated total group count. Our results are similar to those from previous studies, although differences in methodologies and site-specific environmental factors make comparison difficult, and suggest that Oreonax flavicauda is able to survive in disturbed habitat when hunting pressure is low. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Shanee S.,Neotropical Primate Conservation
International Journal of Primatology | Year: 2011

Peruvian yellow-tailed woolly monkeys (Oreonax flavicauda) are considered Critically Endangered (IUCN Categories A4c). The International Primatological Society also considers them one of the world's 25 most endangered primate species and therefore a conservation priority. However, there is little concerted conservation action, and the existing protected area network may be inadequate to protect this species from extinction. Until recently this species has been the focus of few studies and its distributional limits remain unknown. I present results of a range-wide survey of Oreonax flavicauda in northeastern Peru. I conducted 53 presence/absence field surveys at 43 sites between March 2007 and March 2010, with data collected for an additional 7 sites from other researchers. I chose sites where the species was previously reported or following suggestions from predictive GIS modeling. Oreonax flavicauda was present at 35 sites, all presence records were in Ficus spp.-dominated cloud forests between 1500 and 2650 m above sea level. I give the geographical limits of this species distribution throughout the north, east, and west of its range; the exact extent of its range to the south requires further investigation. Oreonax flavicauda continues to be threatened throughout its range. The major threats I identified at the survey locations were the continued conversion of forests to cattle pasture, opening of new access routes into virgin areas, and both commercial and subsistence hunting. My results suggest that existing conservation measures may be inadequate at protecting this species but that substantial opportunities do exist. Further surveys need to be made in the southern distribution of this species to determine more accurately extant habitat. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Shanee S.,Neotropical Primate Conservation | Shanee N.,Neotropical Primate Conservation | Shanee N.,University of Kent
Contributions to Zoology | Year: 2011

The critically endangered yellow-tailed woolly monkey (Oreonax flavicauda) is endemic to the cloud forests of north-eastern Peru and one of the least studied of all primate species. We conducted fifteen months of group follows using focal animal sampling techniques to gather the first behavioural data on free ranging O. flavicauda. Group follows took place in an area of disturbed primary and regenerating secondary forest near the village of La Esperanza, Amazonas department. Yellow-tailed woolly monkey activity budgets at La Esperanza average: 29.8% feeding, 26.3% resting, 29.0% travelling, 2.3% in social and 12.8% in other activities. Significant differences were observed in the frequency of behaviours between age/sex classes as well as on temporal scales. Our findings are similar to those of other woolly monkey species although yellow-tailed woolly monkeys were found to be more vocally active then other species. We recommend further study of this species at other sites with different forest types to better understand its behavioural ecology and conservation needs. Particular emphasis should be given to studying this species at different altitudes.


Shanee N.,Neotropical Primate Conservation
Endangered Species Research | Year: 2012

The Amazonas and San Martin regions in northeastern Peru compose a central part of the Tropical Andes Biodiversity Hotspot, considered one of the highest conservation priorities worldwide. Many of the area's species have been identified as requiring urgent conservation measures by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species and International Primatological Society, as well as being protected under Peruvian law. In this study I present data about wildlife traffic and local wildlife use in Amazonas and San Martin, collected between April 2007 and December 2011. I highlight the trends in, and causes of, illegal trade. I examine the limitations on, and opportunities for, the authorities controlling these practices in the context of national and international pressures and the process of governmental decentralization. The most hunted orders were Psittaciformes (n = 1497) and Primates (n = 279). Animals were mainly found in the hands of traffickers (57%), usually on the way from the neighbouring region of Loreto to the coast. Endangered species were mainly kept as tourist attractions in recreation centres, hotels, or restaurants. Wildlife authorities suffer from a severe lack of specialized personnel, resources and rescue centres, and an often contradictory and inadequate legal framework. I also found a great difference in operation and efficiency between the 2 regions, suggesting that local and regional politics, rather than international pressures and agreements, influence control of species extraction, making fauna in San Martin and Amazonas vulnerable to frequent political changes. © Inter-Research 2012.


Inter-individual spacing of primates and their use of forest strata depend on temporal and spatial changes in the environment and on predator avoidance, group demography, and social conditions. Greater proximity also increases the chances of agonistic and affinitive contact between individuals. I collected behavioral data for three groups of yellow-tailed woolly monkeys (Lagothrix flavicauda) by instantaneous sampling of focal animals for 15 months in La Esperanza, northeastern Peru. By use of combined data for all groups I examined the effects of season, activity, and age/sex class on nearest-neighbor distances and forest strata use. Small differences were observed for nearest-neighbor distances, forest strata use by different age/sex classes, and activity. Adult males had the lowest contact index scores. Contact index scores were low for juvenile females, for which nearest-neighbor distances were largest. Very little aggressive behavior was observed. Focal animals preferred upper levels of the forest with little difference in height for different activities. Lagothrix flavicauda have very cohesive groups with little seasonal or activity-dependent difference between nearest-neighbor distances or proximity. These results suggest that this species has less variable social organization and greater group cohesion than other Atelini. However, more studies are needed on other populations of L. flavicauda to better determine the species’ social organization. Studies are also required to determine the extent to which dispersal times and kinship affect proximity, nearest-neighbor distances, and aggression. © 2014, Japan Monkey Centre and Springer Japan.

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