Prediction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine effectiveness against invasive pneumococcal disease using opsonophagocytic activity and antibody concentrations determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with 22F adsorption
Schuerman L.,Glaxosmithkline |
Wysocki J.,Poznan University of Medical Sciences |
Tejedor J.C.,Neonatology Service |
Knuf M.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz |
And 3 more authors.
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology | Year: 2011
We compared the abilities of two serological readouts, antipolysaccharide IgG antibody concentrations and opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) titers, to predict the clinical effectiveness of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vCRM) against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). We also assessed the accuracy of the previously established thresholds for GlaxoSmithKline's enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with 22F adsorption (22F-ELISA) (≥0.2 μg/ml) and OPA assay (titer, ≥8) in predicting effectiveness. We showed that following a 3-dose 7vCRM primary vaccination, the serological response rates as determined using thresholds of ≥0.2 μg/ml IgG and an OPA titer of ≥8 corresponded well with overall effectiveness against IPD. In addition, the OPA assay seemed to better predict serotype-specific effectiveness than enzyme-linked immunoassay. Finally, when applied to post-dose-2 immune responses, both thresholds also corresponded well with the overall IPD effectiveness following a 2-dose 7vCRM primary vaccination. These results support the importance of the OPA assay in evaluating immune responses to pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Manzoni P.,Neonatology and NICU |
Paes B.,McMaster University |
Resch B.,Medical University of Graz |
Mejias A.,Pediatric Infectious Diseases |
And 3 more authors.
Early Human Development | Year: 2012
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most frequent aetiologic agent that causes bronchiolitis and lower respiratory tract infection in infants. These infections may be severe and even life-threatening in selected high-risk populations. Traditional, well-established, high-risk populations are preterm infants with or without chronic lung disease and children with congenital heart disease. For these children, RSV prophylaxis using palivizumab, a monoclonal anti-RSV humanised antibody against the F-protein of RSV, has proven safe and efficacious in preventing RSV-related hospitalisation. Recently, a number of rare medical conditions have been associated with the risk of severe RSV infections. Evidence of safety and efficacy of RSV prophylaxis in these populations is lacking. Given the low incidence of these conditions, randomised trials are not feasible. A practical, opinion-based approach to this dilemma is offered in this paper. It is proposed that these rare disorders may qualify for RSV prophylaxis if the association between a specific condition and the risk of severe RSV infection is confirmed in at least 3 independent publications, of which at least 1 includes a prospective cohort study. To facilitate pharmaco-economic analyses, at least one of the three studies must also report on the absolute risk of severe RSV infection in the specified illness. The authors believe that qualification criteria will enable caregivers to target RSV prophylaxis more effectively in children with rare conditions and the proposed approach provides direction for future epidemiological studies on the risk of severe RSV infection in children with these uncommon, medical illnesses. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Simoes E.A.F.,Childrens Hospital |
Carbonell-Estrany X.,Neonatology Service |
Rieger C.H.L.,Ruhr University Bochum |
Mitchell I.,University of Calgary |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2010
Background: Although respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in early life are followed by later airway hyperreactivity, it is unclear whether there is a causal relationship between this and an atopic diathesis. Objectives: To separate the effects of RSV LRTI and an atopic diathesis on subsequent recurrent wheezing, we examined the protective effect of previous palivizumab administration against subsequent recurrent wheeze in infants with and without a family history of atopy. Methods: A prospective multicenter, matched, double cohort study was conducted in 27 centers in Europe and Canada. The rates of physician-diagnosed recurrent wheezing in premature infants <36 weeks gestation who had received palivizumab in the first year of life were compared to those of gestational age-matched controls. Results: The relative protective effect of palivizumab on physician-diagnosed recurrent wheezing through the ages of 2 to 5 years was 68% in those with no family history of asthma (odds ratio, 0.32; (95% CI, 0.14-0.75; N = 146 palivizumab-treated, 171 untreated) and 80% in those with no family history of atopy or food allergies (odds ratio, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.07-0.59; N = 101 palivizumab-treated, 100 untreated). In contrast, there was no effect of palivizumab on subsequent recurrent wheezing in the 90 children with a family history of atopy or food allergies compared to 130 untreated infants with atopic families. Conclusion: Respiratory syncytial virus prophylaxis in nonatopic children decreases by 80% the relative risk of recurrent wheezing but does not have any effect in infants with an atopic family history. This suggests that RSV predisposes to recurrent wheezing in an atopy-independent mechanism. © 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.
Carbonell-Estrany X.,Neonatology Service |
Simoes E.A.F.,University of Colorado at Denver |
Dagan R.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev |
Hall C.B.,University of Rochester |
And 4 more authors.
Pediatrics | Year: 2010
OBJECTIVE: Palivizumab reduces respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) hospitalization in children at high risk by ∼50% compared with placebo. We compared the efficacy and safety of motavizumab, an investigational monoclonal antibody with enhanced anti-RSV activity in preclinical studies, with palivizumab. METHODS: This randomized, double-blind, multinational, phase 3, noninferiority trial assessed safety and RSV hospitalization in 6635 preterm infants aged ≤6 months at enrollment or children aged ≤24 months with chronic lung disease of prematurity who received 15 mg/kg palivizumab or motavizumab monthly. Secondary end points included outpatient medically attended lower respiratory tract infections (MALRIs), RSV-specific LRIs, otitis media, antibiotic use, development of antimotavizumab antibodies, and motavizumab serum concentrations. RESULTS: Motavizumab recipients had a 26% relative reduction in RSV hospitalization compared with palivizumab recipients, achieving noninferiority. Motavizumab was superior to palivizumab for reduction of RSV-specific outpatient MALRIs (50% relative reduction). Overall, adverse events (AEs) were not significantly different between groups. Cutaneous events were reported in 2 percentage points more motavizumab recipients (7.2% vs 5.1%); most were mild, but 0.3% resulted in dosing discontinuation. Antidrug antibodies (ADA) were detected in 1.8% of motavizumab recipients. Patients with anti-drug antibody reported 6 RSV events and 17 cutaneous events. CONCLUSIONS: Children receiving prophylaxis with motavizumab or palivizumab had low rates of RSV hospitalization; motavizumab recipients experienced 50% fewer RSV MALRIs than palivizumab recipients. AEs were similar in both groups, although cutaneous AEs were higher for motavizumab recipients. Motavizumabmayoffer an improved alternative in prophylaxis for serious RSV disease in infants and children at high risk. Copyright © 2009 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Di Renzo G.C.,University of Santa Maria in Ecuador |
Melin P.,University of Liege |
Berardi A.,Policlinic University Hospital of Modena |
Blennow M.,Karolinska Institutet |
And 11 more authors.
Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine | Year: 2015
Group B streptococcus (GBS) remains worldwide a leading cause of severe neonatal disease. Since the end of the 1990s, various strategies for prevention of the early onset neonatal disease have been implemented and have evolved. When a universal antenatal GBS screening-based strategy is used to identify women who are given an intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis, a substantial reduction of incidence up to 80% has been reported in the USA as in other countries including European countries. However recommendations are still a matter of debate due to challenges and controversies on how best to identify candidates for prophylaxis and to drawbacks of intrapartum administration of antibiotics. In Europe, some countries recommend either antenatal GBS screening or risk-based strategies, or any combination, and others do not have national or any other kind of guidelines for prevention of GBS perinatal disease. Furthermore, accurate population-based data of incidence of GBS neonatal disease are not available in some countries and hamper good effectiveness evaluation of prevention strategies. To facilitate a consensus towards European guidelines for the management of pregnant women in labor and during pregnancy for the prevention of GBS perinatal disease, a conference was organized in 2013 with a group of experts in neonatology, gynecology-obstetrics and clinical microbiology coming from European representative countries. The group reviewed available data, identified areas where results were suboptimal, where revised procedures and new technologies could improve current practices for prevention of perinatal GBS disease. The key decision issued after the conference is to recommend intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis based on a universal intrapartum GBS screening strategy using a rapid real time testing. © 2014 Informa UK Ltd. All rights reserved: reproduction in whole or part not permitted.