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Sorrentino E.,Neonatology and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit
The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine : the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians | Year: 2012

Critically ill patients are a high risk population for medication errors and neonates represent a more vulnerable group. Errors can occur in each step of the path from prescription to administration and their rate varies widely due to the error definition and identification methods used in the different studies. Identifying medication errors is a challenge in neonatal care and should be a priority among care-givers in order to prevent future incidents and to improve patient safety. Source


Manzoni P.,Neonatology and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit
Journal of Pediatrics | Year: 2016

To discuss the potential clinical benefits of lactoferrin in preterm and term infants, as well as in young children and to review information on the burden of neonatal sepsis. Current evidence on the mechanisms that explain the role of human milk in the neonatal and infant anti-infective responses will be briefly reviewed and preclinical research data on the potential mechanisms of action by which lactoferrin may impact infant gut health, gut immune development and functions, including the lactoferrin effects on the neonatal microbiome, will be examined. Finally, updated translational research on lactoferrin will be presented and discussed and the current evidence from prospective randomized controlled trials in neonates, infants, and toddlers will be analyzed. These randomized controlled trials demonstrate that lactoferrin has a clinically significant impact on feeding, the microbiome, and clinical outcomes in neonates and infants. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. Source


Martinelli S.,Neonatology and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit
The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine : the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians | Year: 2012

To evaluate the relationship between arterial saturation values determined by pulse oximetry in the first weeks of life on the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Randomized and observational studies were sought that compare the incidence of ROP in babies with high or low oxygen saturation targeting assisted by pulse oximetry. Over the last 15 years, evidence from experimental models of ROP and clinical studies, albeit not randomized trials, has shown a reduction in the incidence of ROP and other neonatal morbidities when very preterm newborns were targeted to a lower level of arterial oxygen saturation during their hospitalization, particularly in the first few weeks after birth. More recent evidence from randomized controlled trials confirms that targeting to a lower vs higher level of oxygenation from birth to 36 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) or to hospital discharge reduces the incidence of ROP requiring treatment by 50% but is correlated with higher mortality rates. Future randomized, controlled trials should be designed including a cohort of infants in which a more dynamic approach to saturation targeting is adopted, i.e. lower saturation levels in the first few weeks of life and higher saturation levels after the 32 weeks of PMA. Source


Piralla A.,Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo | Mariani B.,Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo | Stronati M.,Neonatology and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit | Marone P.,Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo | Baldanti F.,Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo
Early Human Development | Year: 2014

Enterovirus (HEV) and parechovirus (HPeV) infections are common in the neonatal period, and account for a large portion of febrile illnesses during the summer season. HEV infections appear clinically and seasonally similar to HPeV infections. In this study, we present the virological and clinical data from neonates infected with HEV or HPeV and hospitalized in a neonatal intensive care unit for sepsis-like illness or neurologic disorders. In the period January 2010 to October 2013, 54 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and 10 plasma samples were obtained from 60 newborns aged <30 days. A total of 7/60 (11.6%) patients were positive for HEV infection and 3 (5.0%) were positive for HPeV infection as determined by specific real-time RT-PCR. The most common clinical signs were fever, irritability, hyporeactivity and, in a few cases, rash. All infections were observed during the summer-fall period. In conclusion, HEV and HPeV were shown to account for a significant portion of febrile illnesses in neonates requiring hospitalization. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source


Paolo T.,Neonatology and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit
Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine | Year: 2012

The term "high-risk newborns" identifies a group of newborns who very likely will develop a severe acute disease or an adverse outcome. Every day, neonatologists are faced with high-risk newborns that represent the majority of patients admitted to the neonatal intensive care units. Particularly, term newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and very preterm newborns require special surveillance of growth and development. A specific follow-up program should be implemented to monitor the long-term outcome of these patients with special needs. © 2012 Informa UK, Ltd. Source

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