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Halifax, United Kingdom

Becher J.-C.,Royal Infirmary | Bhushan S.S.,Neonatal Unit | Lyon A.J.,Royal Infirmary
Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal and Neonatal Edition | Year: 2012

Background: Sudden and unexpected postnatal collapse (SUPC) of a healthy newborn infant is a rare event, which carries a high risk of mortality and significant neurodisability in survivors. An underlying condition can be found in 60% of cases who undergo detailed postmortem but in the remainder there are important associations with prone position, breast feeding and primiparous status. The authors undertook a prospective study to ascertain the population incidence of SUPC in the UK. Methods: Cases were referred through the British Paediatric Surveillance Unit reporting scheme over a 13-month period. Infants were at ≥37 weeks of gestation, had an Apgar score of ≥8 at 5 min, collapsed within 12 h in hospital requiring positive pressure ventilation and either died or received ongoing intensive care. Data were collected on maternal and infant characteristics, clinical investigations and 1-year outcome. Findings: 45 cases were reported, an incidence of 0.05/1000 live births of whom 12 infants died. In 15/45 infants, an underlying disease/abnormality was determined. In 30/45 cases (0.035/1000 live births), no such cause was found, but in 24, the clinical/pathological diagnosis was airway obstruction during breast feeding or in prone position. Mothers were commonly primiparous and unattended by clinical staff before collapse was recognised. Approach to investigation was highly disparate and frequently very limited. Of the 30 infants with no underlying disease/abnormality, 22 (73%) developed a postasphyxial encephalopathy and 10 had a poor outcome (33%) - 5 died and 5 had neurological sequelae at 1 year. Interpretation: SUPC is rare in any one centre and there is no standard approach to investigation. In those cases where collapse is not due to an underlying abnormality, breast feeding and prone position are important associations. Guidelines for safe postnatal care of infants should include appropriate vigilance of infants particularly where mothers are primiparous or where ability to assess the baby may be impaired. Source

Russell A.B.,Neonatal Unit | Sharland M.,Paediatric Infectious Diseases Unit | Heath P.T.,Paediatric Infectious Diseases Unit
Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal and Neonatal Edition | Year: 2012

Antibiotics are increasingly prescribed in the peripartum period, for both maternal and fetal indications. Their effective use can be life-saving, however, injudicious use drives antibiotic resistance and contributes to the development of abnormal faecal flora and subsequent immune dysregulation. Neonatal units are a high risk area for the selection and transmission of multi-resistant organisms. Very few new antibiotics with activity against Gram-negative bacteria are under development, and no significantly new Gram-negative antibiotics will be available in the next decade. This review seeks to summarise current practice, and suggests restrictive antibiotic strategies based on epidemiological data from recently published UK neonatal infection surveillance studies. Source

Mactier H.,Neonatal Unit | Mactier H.,University of Glasgow
Early Human Development | Year: 2013

Substance misuse in pregnancy is not a new problem, but although impaired foetal growth and the risk of developing neonatal abstinence syndrome are widely appreciated, relatively little attention has been paid to longer term consequences for the infant. Available evidence indicates that prenatal exposure to opioids and other drugs of misuse is detrimental to the developing foetal brain; consistent with this, poor in utero head growth, delayed infant visual maturation and impaired general neurodevelopmental progress independent of social confounders are increasingly being recognised. This review considers current evidence and discusses best practice in the neonatal management and follow-up of affected babies. More studies are required to explore alternatives to methadone maintenance in pregnancy and to define optimal treatment for neonatal abstinence syndrome. All infants born to drug-misusing mothers must be considered vulnerable, even if they have not required treatment for neonatal abstinence syndrome. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Yates H.L.,Neonatal Unit | Newell S.J.,University of Leeds
Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal and Neonatal Edition | Year: 2011

Objective: Postnatal dexamethasone therapy is controversial. This study aimed to determine the short-term effects of Minidex (low-dose dexamethasone 0.05 mg/kg/day) on ventilator-dependent preterm babies. Methods: Very preterm babies (less than 30 weeks of gestation or under 1500 g) who were ventilator dependent at over 2 weeks of life and received Minidex therapy (low-dose dexamethasone 0.05 mg/ kg/ day for 10 days followed by alternate-day doses for 6 days) were compared retrospectively to a matched comparison group who received neither Minidex nor standard-dose dexamethasone. Results: 50 babies who received Minidex were compared to a comparison group of 26 babies. Babies treated with Minidex extubated significantly faster than controls, Cox regression hazard ratio 6.24 (95% CI 2.34 to 16.63). By day 4, 34% of babies treated with Minidex had extubated but no controls had. Babies who received Minidex showed significant improvements in both ventilatory index and oxygen requirements, had no increased rate of clinical hypertension (OR 1.16 (95% CI 0.42 to 3.21)) or hyperglycaemia (OR 1.55 (95% CI 0.44 to 5.45)) and had a similar rate of chronic lung disease at 36 weeks' corrected age (OR 1.61 (95% CI 0.62 to 4.22)). No baby developed gastrointestinal perforation or haemorrhage. Conclusion: Minidex therapy facilitates extubation and is not associated with clinically significant short-term side effects. A randomised controlled trial is required to further assess efficacy and long-term outcomes. Source

Morag I.,Neonatal Unit
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2011

The potential benefits and harms of different lighting in neonatal units have not been quantified. To compare the effectiveness of cycled lighting (CL) (approximately 12 hours of light on and 12 hours of light off) with irregularly dimmed light or near darkness (ND) and with continuous bright light (CBL) on growth in preterm infants at three and six months of age. Electronic searches of the literature were conducted (in May 2010) of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and abstracts from Pediatric Academic Societies' annual meetings. Randomised or quasi-randomised trials of CL versus ND or CBL in preterm and low birth weight infants. Data collection and analyses were performed according to the methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. Five studies enrolling 387 infants compared CL to ND. No study reported on weight at three or six months. In one study (n = 40) there was no statistically significant difference in weight at four months between the CL and the ND groups. In another study (n = 62) the ratio of day-night activity prior to discharge favoured the CL group (mean difference 0.18, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.19) indicating 18% more activity during day than night in the CL group compared to the ND group. Two studies (n = 189) reported on retinopathy of prematurity (stage ≥ 3). There was no statistically significant difference between the CL and ND groups (typical RR 0.53, 95% CI 0.25 to 1.11, I(2) = 0%; typical RD -0.09, 95% CI -0.19 to 0.01, I(2) = 0%).Two studies enrolling 82 infants compared CL to CBL. One study (n = 41) reported higher mean weight at three months corrected age in infants cared for in the CL nursery (P < 0.02) and lower mean number of hours spent awake in 24 hours at three months (P < 0.005). In one study (n = 41) days on a ventilator were reduced in the CL group (mean difference -18, 95% CI -31 to -5 days).For many outcomes the trends favoured CL versus ND as well as CL versus CBL. Trials assessing the effect of CL have enrolled 469 infants. Trends for many outcomes favoured cycled light (CL) compared to near darkness (ND) and CL compared to continuous bright light (CBL) The studies may have lacked significance due to a lack of statistical power. Future research should focus on comparing CL to ND. Source

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