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Civardi E.,Neonatal Unit and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit | Garofoli F.,Neonatal Immunology Laboratory | Tzialla C.,Neonatal Unit and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit | Paolillo P.,General Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine | Year: 2013

Human milk has been traditionally considered germ free, however, recent studies have shown that it represents a continuous supply of commensal and potentially probiotic bacteria to the infant gut. Mammary microbioma may exercise anti-infective, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and metabolic properties. Moreover human milk may be a source of pathogenic microorganism during maternal infection, if contaminated during expression or in case of vaccination of the mother. The non-sterility of breast milk can, thus, be seen as a protective factor, or rarely, as a risk factor for the newborn. © 2013 Informa UK Ltd. All rights reserved: reproduction in whole or part not permitted.


Civardi E.,Neonatal Intensive Care Unit | Civardi E.,Neonatal Immunology Laboratory | Tzialla C.,Neonatal Intensive Care Unit | Tzialla C.,Neonatal Immunology Laboratory | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine | Year: 2011

Preterm birth is the leading cause of perinatal morbility and mortality in developed countries. Many innovation in neonatology have raised survival rates in the two past decades, but despite progress in neonatal intensive care, nutrition and growth of preterm infants are still critical points for neonatologists around the world and extrauterine growth restriction remains a common problem. Since growth is recognized as a major problem, in 2010, the European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition published recommendations on enteral nutrition for preterm infants. The aim of this review is to revise nutritional needs of premature infants, taking into consideration the recommendations of ESPGHAN and the recent international literature. © 2011 Informa UK, Ltd.

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