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Gonzalez-Perez A.,Centro Espanol Of Investigacion Farmacoepidemiologica | Gonzalez-Perez A.,NeoCodex | Schlienger R.G.,Novartis | Garcia Rodriguez L.A.,Centro Espanol Of Investigacion Farmacoepidemiologica
Diabetes Care

OBJECTIVE - Previous observational studies have found an increased risk of acute pancreatitis among type 2 diabetic patients. However, limited information is available on this association and specifically on the role of antidiabetic treatment. Our aim, therefore, was to further assess the risk of acute pancreatitis in adult patients with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS- We performed a population-based case-control analysis nested in a cohort of 85,525 type 2 diabetic patients and 200,000 diabetes-free individuals from the general population using data from The Health Improvement Network database. Subjects were followed up to ascertain incident cases of acute pancreatitis. RESULTS- We identified 419 cases of acute pancreatitis, 243 in the general population and 176 in the diabetes cohort. Incidence rates were 30.1 and 54.0 per 100,000 person-years in the general population and the diabetes cohort, respectively. In the cohort analysis, the adjusted incidence rate ratio of acute pancreatitis in diabetic patients versus that in the general population was 1.77 (95% CI 1.46 -2.15). The magnitude of this association decreased with adjustment for multiple factors in the nested case-control analysis (adjusted odds ratio 1.37 [95% CI 0.99-1.89]). Furthermore, we found that the risk of acute pancreatitis was decreased among insulin-treated diabetic patients (0.35 [0.20-0.61]). CONCLUSIONS- Type 2 diabetes may be associated with a slight increase in the risk of acute pancreatitis. We also found that insulin use in type 2 diabetes might decrease this risk. Further research is warranted to confirm these associations. © 2010 by the American Diabetes Association. Source

Gonzalez-Perez A.,Centro Espanol Of Investigacion Farmacoepidemiologica | Gonzalez-Perez A.,NeoCodex | Aponte Z.,Novartis | Vidaurre C.F.,Novartis | Rodriguez L.A.G.,Centro Espanol Of Investigacion Farmacoepidemiologica
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology

Background: There are currently limited data regarding the epidemiology of anaphylaxis. Objective: To estimate the incidence of anaphylaxis from all causes, to explore the variety of diagnoses that may predispose to an anaphylactic episode, and to estimate the rate of recurrence of anaphylaxis in patients with no asthma, nonsevere asthma, and severe asthma. Methods: The Health Improvement Network database provided data on individuals 10 to 79 years old who had been enrolled for at least 1 year with a general practitioner in the United Kingdom and had at least 1 health contact in the year before entering the study. Results: Anaphylaxis incidence rates (per 100,000 person-years) were 21.28 (95% CI, 17.64-25.44) and 50.45 (95% CI, 44.67-56.76) in the no asthma and overall asthma cohorts, respectively. Risk of anaphylaxis was greater in the nonsevere asthma (relative risk, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.65-2.60) and severe asthma (relative risk, 3.29; 95% CI, 2.47-3.47) subgroups compared with the no asthma cohort. The incidence rate of anaphylaxis was higher in women than men (22.65 vs 19.56 per 100,000 person-years). Within the overall asthma population, patients at significantly increased risk of anaphylaxis included those with allergic rhinitis or atopic dermatitis, and current users of antihistamines, oral steroids, or antibiotics (compared with nonusers). Drug and food allergies were the most common known causes of anaphylaxis. Conclusion: Patients with asthma have a greater risk of anaphylaxis than those without asthma, and the risk is greater in severe than nonsevere asthma. Women are at higher risk of anaphylaxis than men, especially those with severe asthma. © 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Source

Romero-Gomez M.,Hospital Universitario Of Valme | Eslam M.,Hospital Universitario Of Valme | Ruiz A.,NeoCodex | Maraver M.,Hospital Universitario Of Valme
Liver International

Hepatitis C virus contact and infection show three different phenotypes: spontaneous viral clearance (SVC), chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and sustained virological response (SVR) following antiviral treatment. Many factors, including genetics, influence the evolution of these three phenotypes. We performed a literature search (PubMed) up to 31 January 2010 without language restriction to identify relevant studies on genes and hepatitis C. Additional studies were sought by reviewing the reference lists of the identified articles. Meta-analysis (using Meta-disk 1.4) was conducted to evaluate the association of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the IL28B region and SVR. The candidate gene approach showed strong relationships between human leucocyte antigen class II (DQB1 *0301 and DRB1 *1101) and SVC. A cirrhosis risk score involving 7 SNPs has been validated recently. The set of odds ratios of studies demonstrated an association between SNP (rs12987960/rs8099917) in the IL28B and SVR in CHC treated with peginterferon plus ribavirin (OR: 4.6; 95% CI: 2.9-7.3). The overall distribution of protective allele correlated with ethnic differences in SVR (Asians, Europeans, Hispanic and Afro-Americans) together with SVC, but not with fibrosis stage or viral load. These polymorphisms did not influence SVR in very-easy-to-treat patients such as genotype 2/3, rapid virological responders or patients with acute hepatitis C. While the genetic fingerprint for fibrosis progression remains elusive, IL28b polymorphism predicts SVC and SVR. However, nearly half of patients achieving SVR did not show favourable genotype. Further genetic signals are warranted to complete the puzzle of factors influencing hepatitis C. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Source

Garci Rodriguez L.A.,Centro Espanol Of Investigacion Farmacoepidemiologica Ceife | Gonzalez-Perez A.,Centro Espanol Of Investigacion Farmacoepidemiologica Ceife | Gonzalez-Perez A.,NeoCodex | Bueno H.,Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon | Hwa J.,Yale University

Background: Recent clinical trials and observational studies have reported increased coronary events associated with non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). There appeared to be a disproportionate increase in non-fatal versus fatal events, however, numbers of fatal events in individual studies were too small, and event rates too low, to be meaningful. Objectives: We undertook a pooled analysis to investigate the effect of NSAIDs on myocardial infarction (MI) risk with the specific aim to differentiate non-fatal from fatal events. Methods: We searched Pubmed (January, 1990 to March, 2010) for observational studies and randomised controlled trials that assessed the effect of NSAIDs (traditional or selective COX-2 inhibitors [coxibs]) on MI incidence separately for fatal and non-fatal events. Summary estimates of relative risk (RR) for non-fatal and fatal MIs were calculated with a random effects model. Results: NSAID therapy carried a RR of 1.30 (95% CI, 1.20-1.41) for non-fatal MI with no effect on fatal MI (RR 1.02, 95% CI, 0.89-1.17) in six observational studies. Overall, the risk increase for non-fatal MI was 25% higher (95% CI, 11%-42%) than for fatal MI. The two studies that included only individuals with prior cardiovascular disease presented risk estimates for non-fatal MI on average 58% greater (95% CI, 26%-98%) than those for fatal MI. In nine randomised controlled trials, all investigating coxibs, the pooled RR estimate for non-fatal MI was 1.61 (95% CI, 1.04-2.50) and 0.86 (95% CI 0.51-1.47) for fatal MIs. Conclusions: NSAID use increases the risk of non-fatal MI with no substantial effect on fatal events. Such differential effects, with potentially distinct underlying pathology may provide insights into NSAID-induced coronary pathology. We studied the association between the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and the risk of myocardial infarction (MI), separating non-fatal from fatal events, summarizing the evidence from both observational studies and randomised controlled trials. An increased risk of non-fatal MI was clearly found in both types of studies while use of NSAID did not confer an increased risk of fatal MI. Our findings provide support for the concept that thrombi generated under NSAID treatment could be different from spontaneous thrombi. © 2011 García Rodríguez et al. Source

Pulido I.,University of Seville | Leal M.,University of Seville | Genebat M.,University of Seville | Pacheco Y.M.,University of Seville | And 2 more authors.
Current HIV Research

Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) is a pandemic infectious disease especially frequent in HIV-infected patients. Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 has been described to play a main role in the innate immunity against TB. In fact, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TLRs may influence AIDS disease progression. The association between two particular SNPs in human TLR4 (Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile) and active TB has been studied in non-HIV Africans with contradictory results. However, studies focusing on the effect of these TLR4 SNPs in active TB within a Caucasian HIV population are lacking. Objectives: To analyze the association between TLR4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile SNPs and active TB, in Caucasian Mediterranean HIV-infected individuals. Methods: 468 HIV-infected patients were analyzed. TLR4 genotyping was performed by real-time PCR and melting curve technology. Results: TB was diagnosed in 59 (12,6%) patients. In a bivariate analysis several variables resulted significantly associated with active TB; intravenous drugs use (OR= 2.2; 95% CI [1.2-3.8]), hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection (OR= 3.4; 95% CI [1.6-7.1]), CD4 count (p<0.001), HIV viral load (p=0.003), latent TB prophylaxis (OR= 0.3; 95% CI [0.1- 0.5]), and TLR4 Asp299Gly (OR= 2.0; 95% CI [1.1-4.2]). No statistical association was found for the TLR4 Thr399Ile. After a multivariate analysis, HCV co-infection (OR= 3.8; 95% CI [2.2-6.5]), baseline CD4 count (OR= 0.996; 95% CI [0.994-0.998]), TLR4 Asp299Gly (OR= 2.57; 95% CI [1.18-5.61]) were independently associated with active TB and inversely with latent TB prophylaxis (OR= 0.24; 95% CI [0.01-0.60]). Conclusions: We describe an independent association between TLR4 Asp299Gly SNP and active TB in Caucasian Mediterranean HIV-infected patients. © 2010 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. Source

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